2 Nephi 20

 

A Covenant Plan of Salvation

      (2 Nephi--Enos)


 

 

2 Nephi 20 (Isaiah Text & Commentary):

 

     Chapter 20

     (Compare Isaiah 10)

     (Chiastic--A,B,C . . . C', B', A')

 

     (A.) The Wicked Will Bow Down

 

 1 Wo unto them that decree unrighteous decrees (or unrighteous laws), and that write grievousness (or carry out oppressive laws) which they have prescribed;

 2 To turn away the needy from [fair] judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless.

 3 And what will ye (the wicked) do in the day of visitation (or punishment), and in the desolation which shall come from far (or from Assyria)? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory (or wealth, etc)?

 4 Without me (or without the Lord) they (the wicked) shall bow down under the prisoners (or huddle among the prisoners), and they shall fall under the slain (or be killed). For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still (that is, you can still repent).

 

     (B.) The Lord Will Use Assyria to Punish Israel

 

 5 O ASSYRIAN, the rod of mine anger (or tool of destruction used by the Lord to punish Israel), and the staff in their hand is their indignation.

 6 I will send him (Assyria) against a hypocritical nation (Israel), and against the people of my wrath (wicked Israel) will I give him (Assyria) a charge (or an assignment) to take the spoil, and to take the prey (Israel), and to tread them down like the mire of the streets (see 2 Nephi 8:23).

 

     (C.) The Assyrian King Thinks He Is in Control

 

 7 Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so (that is, the king of Assyria doesn't realize he is a tool in God's hand, but thinks he is doing a great work); but in his heart it is to destroy and cut off nations not a few (but in reality, the king of Assyria is a wicked man).

 8 For he (the Assyrian king) saith (or boasts): Are not my princes (or military commanders) altogether kings (or just like kings in other countries)?

 9 Is not Calno as Carchemish? Is not Hamath as Arpad? Is not Samaria as Damascus? (cities conquered by Assyria -- that is, Assyria is boasting: What city can withstand our assault?)

 10 As my hand (or the hand of Assyria) hath founded (or acquired) the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria (or in other words, I've taken many cities whose idols are much more powerful than those of Jerusalem and Samaria);

 11 Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and to her idols?

 

     (D.) The Lord Will Punish Assyria, Like All Wicked People

 

 12 Wherefore it shall come to pass that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon Mount Zion (the hill upon which Solomon built his temple--1 Kings 8:1) and upon Jerusalem (the Holy City), I (the Lord) will punish the fruit of the stout (or proud) heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks (or arrogance) (or in other words, when I'm through using Assyria against Israel, then proud, haughty Assyria will get its deserved punishment).

 13 For he (the Assyrian king) saith (or brags): By the strength of my hand and by my wisdom I have done these things; for I am prudent; and I have moved the borders of the people, and have robbed their treasures, and I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man;

 14 And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people; and as one gathereth eggs that are left have I gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped (that is everybody is so afraid of me that they don't dare move a muscle or make a sound!).

 

     (E.) Who Controls the Tools of Power

 

 15 Shall the ax (symbolizing the King of Assyria) boast itself against him (the Lord) that heweth (or controls the ax) therewith? Shall the saw magnify itself against (or defy) him that shaketh it (or powers it)? As if the rod (or wooden club) should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as if the staff should lift up itself as if it were no wood (or as if these wooden objects had power unto themselves)!

 

     (F.) The Lord Will Be a Burning Fire in the Land

 

 16 Therefore (or because of the King of Assyria's wicked deeds and cocky attitude) shall the Lord, the Lord of Hosts, send among his fat (or powerful) ones, leanness (or circumstances that will take away their power); and under his (Assyria's) glory he shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire (or in other words, the Lord will burn Assyria up).

 17 And THE LIGHT OF ISRAEL (Christ) shall be for a fire, and his (or Israel's) Holy One for a flame, and shall burn and shall devour his (or Assyria's) thorns and his briers (or the rank and file of the Assyrian army) in one day (in truth, 185,000 Assyrians died of devastating sickness in one night as they prepared to attack Jerusalem -- see 2 Kings 19:35-37);

 

     (G.) Out of the Multitude--Only a Remnant Will Remain

 

 18 And [the Lord] shall consume the glory of his (or the Assyrian king's) forest (or his strength - his armies or people), and of his fruitful field (or wealth), both soul and body (or in every way); and they shall be as when a standard-bearer fainteth (that is, as when the last soldier falls, and the flag with him -- almost everything will be destroyed).

 19 And the rest of the trees of his forest (that is, the remnants of Assyria's people) shall be few, that a child may write them (that is, so few Assyrians will remain that a small child could count them with his limited counting ability).

 

   Isaiah now looks forward to the day when a remnant of the house of Israel will trust in the Holy One of Israel. This remnant could be interpreted as (1) the remnant who originally returned to Jerusalem under Darius' edict; and/or (2) the righteous remnant that will return to the Lord in the Latter-Days.

 

     (H.) A Remnant of Scattered Israel Will Return unto God

 

 20 And it shall come to pass in that day (or the last days), that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped (or have survived) of the house of Jacob (Israel), shall no more again stay (or be dependent) upon him (or upon Israel's enemies) that smote them, but shall stay (or depend) upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

 21 The [righteous] remnant shall return, yea, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the Mighty God (see 2 Nephi 21:11-12).

 

     (G'.) Of the Multitude--Only a Remnant Will Remain

 

 22 For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea (or numerous), yet a remnant (or only a remnant) of them shall return (or be truly converted to righteousness); the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness (that is, a righteous cleansing will sweep the earth in the last days until all the wicked are destroyed) .

 

     (F'.) A Divine Consumption Will Be in the Land

 

 23 For the Lord God of Hosts shall make a consumption, even determined (or decreed -- see Isaiah 10, footnote 23a) in all the land.

 

  Isaiah now compares Assyria's conquest of Judah with the "consumption" of the house of Israel which he has just described -- verses 22-23.

     (E'.) The Tools of Power Are Controlled by the Lord

 

 24 Therefore, thus saith the Lord God of Hosts: O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian; he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt (or like Egypt did in earlier times).

 25 For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine anger in their destruction (that is, it won't be long before I will stop using the Assyrians as a tool of my anger and indignation).

 26 And the Lord of Hosts shall stir up a scourge for him (or for the Assyrians) according to (or like) the slaughter of Midian at the rock of OREB (where Gideon and his 300 miraculously defeated the Midianites -- see Judges 7:23-25); and as his rod was upon the sea so shall he lift it up after the manner of Egypt (that is, God will stop Assyria like he did the Egyptians with Moses' rod when they pursued the Children of Israel to the shores of the Red Sea).

 

     (D'.) Assyria's Power Will Be Overcome

 

 27 And it shall come to pass in that day that his burden (or Assyria's oppression) shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke (or bondage) from off thy neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing (or because of the covenants made by the Lord with the House of Israel).

 

     (C'.) Assyria's Threat to Jerusalem Will Be in Vain

 

  Although the Assyrians (the forces of Satan) will easily take many cities leading right up to the outskirts of Jerusalem (the head of the house of Israel) and it will look like Jerusalem is doomed, the King of Assyria is no match for the Lord.

 

 28 He (Assyria) is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Michmash he hath laid up his carriages (which are symbolic of military might).

 29 They (Assyria) are gone over the passage; they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramath is afraid; Gibeah of Saul is fled.

 30 Lift up the voice (or weep!), O daughter of Gallim; cause it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth.

 31 Madmenah is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim gather themselves to flee.

 32 As yet shall he (Assyria) remain at Nob (just barely outside of Jerusalem) that day; he shall shake his hand (or visible threatening fist) against the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.

 

     (B'.) Assyria Will Be Humbled by the Lord

 

 33 Behold, the Lord, the Lord of Hosts shall lop the bough with terror (that is, at this point in time, when the Assyrian armies get right to Jerusalem, the Lord will "trim them down to size"); and the high ones of stature (or the leaders of Assyrian armies) shall be hewn down; and the haughty shall be humbled.

 

     (A'.) The Wicked Will Be Brought Down

 

 34 And he [the Lord] shall cut down the thickets of the forests (symbolizing Assyria) with iron (or with an axe), and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one (in truth, the Lord stopped Assyria by killing 185,000 of them in one night as they camped outside Jerusalem -- see 2 Kings 19:32-35).

[Alan C. Miner, Step by Step through the Book of Mormon: The Covenant Story, Vol. 2. Adapted from David J. Ridges, Isaiah Made Easier / The Book of Revelation Made Easier, 1994]

 

2 Nephi 20 (Chiastic Structure):

 

     As shown in the following outline, in 2 Nephi 20, Isaiah presents eight initial themes or ideas in verses 1 through 21 and then repeats them in verses 22-34, but in reverse order:

     A. The wicked will bow down (vs. 1-4)

       B. Assyria raised by the Lord (5)

         C. The Assyrian king speaks against Jerusalem (6-11)

           D. The Lord will punish proud Assyria (12-14)

             E. An ax is used as a tool (15)

               F. The Lord is a burning fire in the land (16-17)

                 G. Out of all the [multitudes]--only a remnant remains (18-19)

                   H. A remnant of Israel shall return to the Lord (20-21)

               G'. Out of the "sand of the sea"--only a remnant returns (22)

             F'. A divine consumption is in the land (23)

           E'. A rod is used as an instrument (24-26)

         C'. Assyrian army approaches Jerusalem (28-32)

       B'. Assyria humbled by the Lord (33)

     A'. The haughty will be cut down (34) (Isaiah: Prophet, Seer, and Poet, p. 161)

[ Hoyt W. Brewster, Jr., Isaiah Plain & Simple, pp. 96-97]

 

2 Nephi 20:5-6 O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation (Illustration): Assyrian Warfare. Illustrations by Anne Stewart. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 32]

 

2 Nephi 20:5-6 To tread them down like the mire of the streets (Illustration): Mire on the pathways of the Biblical Zoo, Jerusalem. Many streets in the biblical period lacked asphalt, cement, or even paving stones. They became deep mud, or mire, during the rainy season, January through March. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 33]

 

2 Nephi 20:7 The Light of Israel . . . shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day (Illustration): Thorns near Bethel. Thorns are prickly and fruitless plants that exist in the dry countryside of the Holy Land. The Bible mentions the vexatious nature of thorns (Genesis 3:18; Numbers 33:55; Joshua 23:13). Thorns are valuable only as quick burning fuel. Hence Isaiah's prophecy that the wicked, at Jesus' second coming, would burn as easily as thorns are consumed. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 123]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Calno:

 

     Calno (Kalno), Isaiah 10:9 (2 Nephi 20:9). A town Kullania mentioned in Assyrian tribute lists. Associated with Arpad. Modern Kullan Koy 16 kilometers southeast of Arpad. Its destruction symbolized the overwhelming might of Assyria (Isaiah 10:9). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 227]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Carchemish:

 

     Carchemish (2 Nephi 20:9) was a city (modern Jerablus) which guarded the main ford across the river Euphrates about 100 kilometers northeast of Aleppo. As a Syrian city-state it had treaties with Ugarit and other states during the 2nd millennium B.C. After a defeat by Sargon II in 717 B.C., Carchemish was incorporated as an Assyrian province. The event is noted in Isaiah 10:9. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 252]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Hamath:

 

     Hamath (2 Nephi 20:9) was a city on the east bank of the Orontes river, lying on one of the main trade-routes to the south from Asia Minor. It was conquered by Jeroboam II (about 780 B.C., 2 Kings 14:28) and Sargon (about 721 B.C., 2 Kings 18:33; Isaiah 36:18; 37:13). Its destruction symbolized the overwhelming might of Assyria (Isaiah 10:9). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 2, p. 605]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Arpad:

 

     Arpad (2 Nephi 20:9) was the name of a city and Aramaean province in northern Syria, now Tell Rif'at, about 30 kilometers northwest of Aleppo. Annexed by Tiglath pileser III after a 2-year siege in 740 B.C., it rebelled with Hamath, Damascus and Samaria in 720, and was reconquered by Sargon II. This lies behind the boast of Rabshakeh to Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:34; Isaiah 36:19; 37:13, AV "Arphad"). Its destruction symbolized the overwhelming might of Assyria (Isaiah 10:9; Jeremiah 49:23). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 118]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Calno, Carchemish, Hamath, Arpad (Illustration): Centers of Aramaean settlement. Aramaeans are usually called "Syrians" in the English Old Testament. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 91]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Samaria:

 

     [See the commentary on 2 Nephi 17:9]

 

2 Nephi 20:9 Damascus:

 

     [See the commentary on 2 Nephi 17:8]

 

2 Nephi 20:15 The axe (Illustration): An ax leaning against a threshing sledge, Qatzrin, an ancient village from the talmudic period (ca. A.D. 2020-500). Axes were common tools used anciently for trimming or felling trees, clearing heavy brush, or quarrying stone. Similar to its modern counterpart, the ax had a wooden handle with an iron head. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 34]

 

2 Nephi 20:15 The saw (Illustration): A saw leaning on a post near a home, Qatzrin. The saw served in biblical times to cut both wood and stone. Blades were usually made of bronze or iron. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 34]

 

2 Nephi 20:22 Thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea (Illustration): Sand dunes on the Mediterranean seashore, near Gaza. The great stretch of sandy seashore next to the Mediterranean Sea together with the immense deserts of sand throughout the Near East have made sand the subject of many similes in the scriptures. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 101]

 

2 Nephi 20:26 Midian:

 

     The people of Midian (2 Nephi 20:26) were linked to Abraham through Midian, the son of the concubine Keturah. The Midianites inhabited the desert borders in Transjordan from Moab down past Edom. They were desert-dwellers associated with Ishmaelites and Medanites (Genesis 37:28, 36) when Joseph was sold into Egypt. In the time of the judges, through Gideon and his puny band (Judges 6-8; 9:17), God delivered Israel from the scourge of camel-riding Midianites, Amalekites and other "children of the east," an event remembered by psalmist and prophet (Psalms 83:9; Isaiah 9:4; 10:26). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, pp. 997-998]

     

2 Nephi 20:26 Midian (Illustration): The Territory of the Midianites. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 998]

 

2 Nephi 20:26 Rock of Oreb:

 

     Oreb was a Midianite prince in an army routed by Gideon (Judges 7). The Ephraimites cut off the enemy's retreat at the Jordan fords, presumably opposite Jezreel; Bethbarah might be a ford some 20 kilometers south of the Sea of Galilee. The rock of Oreb was named after this slain prince, and remembered for the great defeat of Midian (Judges 7:25; Isaiah 10:26). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 1121]

 

     The rock of Oreb was probably the place now called Orbo, on the east of Jordan, near Bethshean [Bethshan]. (Easton's Bible Dictionary) [Infobases, LDS Collectors Library '97 ] [See the commentary on Bethbara--1 Nephi 10:9]

 

2 Nephi 20:26 Rock of Oreb (Illustration): The land around Jezreel. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 789]

 

2 Nephi 20:28 Aiath:

 

     The proposed city of Ai ("Aiath"--2 Nephi 20:28) lay east (about 3 kilometers) of Bethel and the altar which Abram built (Genesis 12:8) and north of Michmash (Isaiah 10:28). The Israelite attack upon it, immediately following the sack of Jericho, was at first repulsed, but after Achan's sin had been punished a successful stratagem was employed. The people of Ai were killed, their king executed, and their city burned and made into a heap (Joshua 7:1--8:29).

     This city of Ai became an Ephraimite town (1 Chronicles 7:28, "Ayyah"), but was inhabited by the Benjaminites after the Exile (Nehemiah 11:31). Isaiah pictured the Assyrian armies advancing on Jerusalem by way of Ai (Isaiah 10:28, "Aiath"). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 27]

 

2 Nephi 20:28 Aiath (Illustration): The situation of Ai in relation to Jericho. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 26]

 

2 Nephi 20:28-32 Aiath, Migron, Michmash, Geba, Ramath, Gibeah, Gallim, Laish, Anathoth, Madmenah, Gebim, Nob, Jerusalem (Illustration): The Assyrian forces approach and threaten Jerusalem but are defeated by the Lord of Hosts. Artist: Tom Child. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 120]

 

2 Nephi 20:28-32 (Assyria Marches to Jerusalem) (Illustration) Map: Assyria Marches to Jerusalem. Arrow indicates possible route of Assyrian army. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 29]

 

2 Nephi 20:28 Migron:

 

     Migron (2 Nephi 20:28) was a locality mentioned in the march of the Assyrian army advancing on Jerusalem in Isaiah 10:28. The proposed site is situated north of Michmash. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 999]

 

2 Nephi 20:28 Michmash:

 

     Michmash (2 Nephi 20:28) was a city of Benjamin east of Bethel and 12 kilometers north of Jerusalem, 600 meters above sea level, on the pass from Bethel to Jericho. In Geba, just south of this pass, Jonathan the son of Saul, made a successful foray against the Philistine garrison (1 Samuel 13:3).

     In his prophetic description of the coming attack on Jerusalem Isaiah (10:24, 28) represents the taking of Michmash by the Assyrians. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 997]

 

2 Nephi 20:28 Michmash (Illustration): The location of Michmash, Geba, Gibeah and Bethel in relation to Jerusalem. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 997]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Geba:

 

     Geba (2 Nephi 20:29) was a town belonging to Benjamin, 11 kilometers north of Jerusalem and 5 kilometers from Gibeah from which it is to be distinguished; (Joshua 18:24, 28; Isaiah 10:29). It was assigned to the Levites under Joshua (Joshua 21:17; 1 Chronicles 6:60). It was here that Jonathan the son of Saul, made a successful foray against the Philistine garrison (1 Samuel 13:3). In the days of Asa, king of Judah, it was fortified, and then regarded as the northern limit of Judah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 554-555]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Geba (Illustration): Geba, a town of Benjamin. After fortification by King Asa it was regarded as the northern limit of Judah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 544]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Ramath:

 

     John Tvedtnes writes that in comparing the Isaiah text from the King James Bible with the Book of Mormon, we find that while 2 Nephi 20:29 has the word "Ramath," the KJV (Isaiah 10:29) has "Ramah" and the Massoretic Hebrew Text has "Rmh. "Ramath" would be the more ancient form of the name, with the old feminine -ath suffix which, in later (even Biblical, usually) Hebrew disappeared in pausal form of the noun. It is interesting that in 2 Nephi 20:28 (compare Isaiah 10:28) both the KJV and the Book of Mormon have the name "Aiath" with the same old feminine ending. This is particularly interesting, because in the IQIsa (Qumran) manuscript the name is written as "Aiah" but a superscript letter is added to show the older form "Aiath" This provides evidence that the Brass Plates was from an older source than the Massoretic Hebrew Text. The oldest copies of the Massoretic Text date to the 8th century A.D. The Qumran text is dated to the first centuries B.C. [John A. Tvedtnes, "The Isaiah Variants in the Book of Mormon," FARMS, p. 50]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Ramath:

 

     The name Ramah (Heb. "to be high") was used of several places, all of them on elevated sites. Ramah of Benjamin, was near Bethel, in the area of Gibeon (Joshua 18:25) was a restingplace on the road north. When Asa of Judah and Baasha of Israel were at war, Baasha built a fort here, but when the Syrians attacked Israel Asa destroyed it and built Geba and Mizpah with the materials (1 Kings 15:17, 21-22; 2 Chronicles 16:1, 5-6). Here Nebuzaradan gathered the exiles after the fall of Jerusalem and released Jeremiah (Jeremiah 40:1).

     Ramah (Ramath--2 Nephi 20:29) features in the messages of some of the prophets (Hosea 5:8; Isaiah 10:29; Jeremiah 31:15). It is probably to be identified with Er-Ram, 8 kilometers north of Jerusalem. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1318] [See the commentary on Ether 15:11]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Ramath (Illustration): The Possible locations for biblical Ramah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1318]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul:

 

     The city of Gibeah ("Gibeah of Saul"--2 Nephi 20:29) was a city in Benjamin (Joshua 18:28), evidently north of Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:29). As a result of a crime committed by the inhabitants, the city was destroyed in the period of the Judges (Judges 19--20). It was famous as the birthplace of Saul (1 Samuel 10:26), hence "Gibeah of Saul" (1 Samuel 11:4), and it served as his residence while he was king (1 Samuel 13--15). When David was king it was necessary to allow the Gibeonites to hang up the bodies of seven of Saul's descendants on the walls of Gibeah to make amends for his slaughter of them (2 Samuel 21:6). . . . There was a fortress there which was rebuilt with a watchtower, possibly by Hezekiah, and destroyed soon after (Isaiah 10:29).

     Biblical Gibeah of Saul is almost certainly to be identified with the mound of Tell el-Ful, about 5 kilometers north of Jerusalem. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 557-558]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): The hill of el-Jib, the modern site of the ancient city of Gibeon. (2) The water-system at Gibeon consisted of a water-chamber cut into the rock, reached by a spiral staircase, and an Iron Age tunnel of 93 steps leading to the spring outside the city wall. Section through the east side of the hill, showing the stepped tunnel and spring. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): l. Section through the east side of the hill, showing the stepped tunnel and spring. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): (2) The water-system at Gibeon consisted of a water-chamber cut into the rock, reached by a spiral staircase, and an Iron Age tunnel of 93 steps leading to the spring outside the city wall. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

 

2 Nephi 20:30 Gallim:

 

     Gallim (2 Nephi 20:30) was the native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem. (Easton's Bible Dictionary) [Infobases, LDS Collectors Library '97 ]

 

2 Nephi 20:30 Laish:

 

     Laish (2 Nephi 20:30) was a place mentioned in Isaiah 10:30. It has been supposed to be the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem. (Easton's Bible Dictionary) [Infobases, LDS Collectors Library '97 ]

 

2 Nephi 20:30 Anathoth:

 

     Anathoth (2 Nephi 20:30) was a town in the territory of Benjamin assigned to Levites (Joshua 21:18). It was the home of Abiathar (1 Kings 2:26) and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:1; 11:21. . . . Conquered by Sennacherib (Isaiah 10:30). The modern site, Ras el-Harrubeh, about 5 kilometers north of Jerusalem, lies near the village of Anata. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 49]

 

2 Nephi 20:31 Madmenah:

 

     Madmenah (2 Nephi 20:31) was a place mentioned only in Isaiah's description of the route whereby an invading army approached Jerusalem from the north (Isaiah 10:31). Shu'fat, 2 kilometers north of Mount Scopus, is the supposed site. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 929]

 

2 Nephi 20:31 Madmenah (Illustration): Proposed site for Madmenah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 930]

 

2 Nephi 20:31 Gebim:

 

     A small place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the approach of the Assyrian army (Isaiah 10:31). It is probably the modern el-Isawiyeh. (Easton's Bible Dictionary) [Infobases, LDS Collectors Library '97 ]

 

2 Nephi 20:32 Nob:

 

     A locality mentioned in three passages of the Old Testament, all of which may refer to the same place. In 1 Samuel 22:19 it is referred to as a city of priests; presumably Yahweh's priests had fled there with the ephod after the capture of the ark and the destruction of Shiloah (1 Samuel 4:11). David visited Nob after he had escaped from Saul when Ahimelech was priest there and ate holy bread (1 Samuel 21:6). When Saul heard that the priest of Nob had assisted the fugitive David he raided the shrine and had Ahimelech, along with eighty-five other priests, put to death (1 Samuel 22:9, 11, 18-19).

     Isaiah prophesied that the Assyrian invaders would reach Nob, between Anathoth, 4 kilometers northeast of Jerusalem, and the capital (Isaiah 10:32). [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 1093]