Second Nephi

 

 

A Covenant Plan of Salvation

      (2 Nephi--Enos)


 

 

SECOND NEPHI

 

2 Nephi 1:4 I have seen a vision, in which I know that Jerusalem is destroyed (Illustration): Destruction of Jerusalem. Lehi prophesied that Jerusalem would be destroyed because of its wickedness. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 19]

2 Nephi 1:14 Hear the words of a trembling parent, whose limbs ye must soon lay down in the cold and silent grave (Illustration): Lehi Blesses His Sons in the Wilderness. Artist: Ronald Crosby. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, March 1977, inside back cover] [see also The Ensign, January 1988, p. 30]

2 Nephi 2:4 The way is prepared from the fall of man (Illustration #1): He Offereth Himself unto Those with a Broken Heart. [Gerald N. Lund, "The Fall of Man and His Redemption," in The Book of Mormon: Second Nephi, The Doctrinal Structure, p. 98]

 

2 Nephi 2:4 The way is prepared from the fall of man (Illustration #2): Lehi's Chain of Reasoning. [Gerald N. Lund, "The Fall of Man and His Redemption," in The Book of Mormon: Second Nephi, The Doctrinal Structure, pp. 100-101]

2 Nephi 2:19 Adam and Eve . . . were driven out of the Garden of Eden (Illustration): Leaving the Garden of Eden. Artist: Joseph Brickey. [LDS Church, The Ensign, January 1998, p. 17]

 

2 Nephi 2:19 Adam and Eve (Illustration): Chart: A Latter-Day Saint View of Adam. [Arthur A. Bailey, "What Modern Revelation Teaches About Adam," in The Ensign, January 1998, pp. 20-27

 

2 Nephi 2:25 Adam fell that men might be; and men are, that they might have joy (Illustration): Adam and Eve Kneeling at an Altar. Adam and Eve carried out an important part of God's plan. If they had remained in the Garden of Eden they would not have progressed and Heavenly Father would not have been able to send His spirit children to the earth. That is why Lehi said, "Adam fell that men might be." Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 76]

 

2 Nephi 2:25 Adam fell that men might be (Illustration): Adam & Eve "Adam Fell That Men Might Be" [Del Parson, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

2 Nephi 3:1-25 (Blessing of Joseph -- Chiasm) (Illustration): 2 Nephi 3:1-25: Lehi's Blessing to Young Joseph [Shirley R. Heater, "Lehi's Blessing to His Son Joseph," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol. 2, p. 55]

2 Nephi 3:1 And now I [Lehi] speak unto you, Joseph, my last-born (Illustration): Lehi blessing his son Joseph, statuary at the L.D.S. Hawaiian Temple. [Paul R. Cheesman and Millie F. Cheesman, Early America and the Polynesians, p. 27]

2 Nephi 3:4 I am a descendant of Joseph who was carried captive into Egypt (Illustration): "Joseph, our patriarchal ancestor, was prime minister of Egypt for 80 years. He lived approximately 1,771 to 1,661 B.C," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1200]

 

2 Nephi 3:4 I am a descendant of Joseph who was carried captive into Egypt. And great were the covenants of the Lord which he made unto Joseph (Illustration): Joseph of Egypt Making Grain Available during Famine. Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, March 1990, inside front cover]

 

2 Nephi 3:4 I am a descendant of Joseph who was carried captive into Egypt (Illustration): Joseph of Egypt. Joseph who was sold into Egypt saw the latter days. He spoke of Joseph Smith when he testified, "A seer shall the Lord my God raise up, who shall be a choice seer unto the fruit of my loins." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 78]

 

2 Nephi 3:4 I am a descendant of Joseph who was carried captive into Egypt. And great were the covenants of the Lord which he made unto Joseph (Illustration): Joseph Making Himself Known to His Brothers. Artist: Ted Henninger. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, October 1987, inside back cover]

2 Nephi 3:4 And great were the covenants of the Lord which He made unto Joseph (Chart): Table of Comparisons between the Life of Joseph and the Life of Jesus [in Syriac Literature]. [Kristian Heal, "Jesus in the Syriac Retelling of the Joseph Story," presented at a FARMS brown-bag lecture, October 11, 2000]

2 Nephi 3:7 Joseph truly said: Thus saith the Lord unto me: A choice seer will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins (Illustration): Joseph Sees Joseph [Paul Mann, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 4]

2 Nephi 3:9 And he [Joseph] shall be great like unto Moses (Illustration): Parallels Relating to Moses, Jesus, and Joseph Smith [Almon Fackrell, Parallels of Moses, Jesus and Joseph Smith, pp. 49-152]

 

2 Nephi 3:9 Scriptures referring to Moses (Illustration) writing about Christ. [Cristian Heal. Brown Bag Presentnation: Josesph as a Type of Chrit in Syriac Literature.

2 Nephi 3:12 That which shall be written . . . shall grow together (Illustration): Wooden tablets, called sticks [Old Testament Student Manual Religion 302, p. 283]

 

2 Nephi 3:12 That which shall be written . . . shall grow together (Illustration): The discovery in 1953 of these writing boards from biblical Calah in Mesopotamia altered the thinking of scholars about how Middle Eastern cultures made records. Wooden tablets filled with wax represent the "earliest known form of ancient books" and help us understand an important prophecy of Ezekiel foretelling the uniting of the Bible and Book of Mormon. [Keith Meservy, "Ezekiel's Sticks and the Gathering of Israel," in The Ensign, February 1987, p. 4]

 

2 Nephi 3:12 That which shall be written . . . shall grow together (Illustration): A diagram of the hinged writing boards, showing their appearance when closed. [Keith H. Meservy, "Ezekiel's 'Sticks'," in The Ensign, September 1977, p. 25]

 

2 Nephi 3:12 (Ezekiel 37:17) Join them one to another into one stick [Ezekiel] (Illustration): Ezekiel. Artist: Robert Barrett. It now seems clear that the prophet Ezekiel was referring to wax writing boards in his prophecy about the "sticks" of Judah and Joseph. Wooden or ivory boards were filled with wax, inscribed with a stylus, then bound together to protect the writing surfaces, making them "one in the hand' of the scribe. The most recent discovery, as well as the oldest known example of wax writing boards, dating from the 14th century B.C. was found in a shipwreck off the southwestern coast of modern Turkey. This discovery was reported at the November 1986 annual meeting of the American School of Oriental Research. [Keith Meservy, "Ezekiel's Sticks and the Gathering of Israel," The Ensign, February 1987, p. 5]

 

2 Nephi 3:12 (Ezekiel 37:17) Join them one to another into one stick (Illustration): Reconstructed Mesopotamian Writing Tablets. Photo: Keith Meservy from British Museum, London. These writings tablets--"sticks"--still contain some of their beeswax and arsenic sulphide filling. The arsenic kept the wax pliable, and gave it a bright yellow color; and the writing is so small and careful that the thirty writing surfaces on the whole combined set of tablets could have contained 7,500 lines of text. [Keith H. Meservy, "Ezekiel's 'Sticks'," The Ensign, September 1977, p. 27]

 

2 Nephi 3:12 That which shall be written . . . shall grow together (Illustration): The Bible and the Book of Mormon Testify of Christ. The writings of Judah and the writings of Joseph would "grow together." Artist: Greg K. Olsen. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 80]

2 Nephi 3:15 His name shall be called after me [Joseph] (Illustration): Parallels between the Messiah ben Joseph Legend and Restoration Scriptures. This chart illustrates five parallels between the ancient Jewish legends of the Messiah ben Joseph and scriptural literature that was produced by the Prophet Joseph Smith. [Matthew B. Brown, All Things Restored: Confirming the Authenticity of LDS Beliefs, p. 39]

2 Nephi 3:17 I will raise up a Moses (Illustration): Moses and the Burning Bush. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #107]

2 Nephi 4:16-35 (Psalm of Nephi) [Illustration]: Chart comparing the Psalm of Nephi with the Prayer of Zenos. [Constructed from information taken from Noel B. Reynolds, "Nephite Uses and Interpretations of Zenos," in The Allegory of the Olive Tree, pp. 34-36]

Geographical Theory Map: 2 Nephi 5:5-8 Nephi Flees to the Land of Nephi (Year 021)

2 Nephi 5:7 We did journey in the wilderness for the space of many days (Illustration): From any part of the strip of wilderness near the Pacific coast . . . in southern Guatemala, the mountains are visible, beckoning with a promise of cooler climate. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 194]

 

2 Nephi 5:7 We . . . did journey in the wilderness (Illustration): The route from Tapachula Mexico (near the ruins of Izapa--a proposed location for the landing area of Lehi) to Guatemala City (the site of the ruins of Kaminaljuyu--a proposed location for the city of Nephi). This is an enhanced photo of the giant Relief Map of Guatemala located in Guatemala City. [Cliff Cross, Central America Travel Guide, p. 15]

 

2 Nephi 5:7 We . . . did journey in the wilderness (Illustration): Another perspective of three main routes from Tapachula (near the ruins of Izapa--a proposed location for the landing area of Lehi) to Guatemala City (the site of the ruins of Kaminaljuyu--a proposed location for the city of Nephi): (Route #1) proceeding along the Pacific coast to Esquintla, then upwards past Lake Amatitlan; (Route #2) proceeding part way along the Pacific coast, the climbing upwards to Quetzaltenango and then passing by Lake Atitlan; (Route #3) going a little northward and then ascending upwards to Quetzaltenango and then passing by Lake Atitlan. This is an enhanced photo of the giant Relief Map of Guatemala located in Guatemala City. [Cliff Cross, Central America Travel Guide, p. 31]

 

2 Nephi 5:7 We . . . did journey in the wilderness (Illustration): Another perspective of the routes from Tapachula (near the ruins of Izapa--a proposed location for the landing area of Lehi) to Guatemala City (the site of the ruins of Kaminaljuyu--a proposed location for the city of Nephi). As shown, the coastal route proceeds from Izapa (to the left out of the picture) along the coast to Esquintla, then upwards past Lake Amatitlan to Guatemala City. The other connecting route (the route of the Inter-American Highway) comes from beyond Quetzaltenango passing by Lake Atitlan. This is an enhanced photo of the giant Relief Map of Guatemala located in Guatemala City. [Cliff Cross, Central America Travel Guide, p. 27 ]

2 Nephi 5:8 Wherefore we did call it Nephi (Illustration): The ruins of Kaminaljuyu consist of several dirt mounts. Located in Guatemala City, the site is proposed as the City/Land of Nephi. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 360]

 

2 Nephi 5:8 Wherefore we did call it Nephi (Illustration): Top: The area of Guatemala City suggested as the immediate land of Nephi; Bottom: Part of Kaminaljuyu, the large site within Guatemala City that qualifies as the city of Nephi. [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., p. 144]

 

2 Nephi 5:8 My people would that we should call the name of the place Nephi (Illustration): The great city at Kaminaljuyu was once at least a mile square and contained hundreds of major buildings. This photograph only hints at the former extent and the density of public structures. Encroaching suburban growth has by now destroyed all but a small portion of the site, which is preserved as a park. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 199]

 

2 Nephi 5:8 We did call It Nephi (Illustration): Looking nearly west across restored Mayan walls of Mixco Viejo. Fifty-four verses in the Book of Mormon give some detail of the land or the city of Nephi. Though the restored city shown dates to the 11th and 12th century A.D., artifacts and excavations reveal the original city to be contemporaneous with the Book of Mormon. [F. Richard Hauck, "In Search of the Land of Nephi," in This People, Fall 1994, p. 53. (Photography by Scot Facer Proctor)]

 

2 Nephi 5:8 We did call it Nephi (Illustration): Afternoon light touches hillsides and the archeological site of Mixco (pronounced meesh-ko) Viejo, formidable ancient city located on the south side of the Motagua River. We may surmise that Nephi used the Liahona to guide the faithful to a place like this where they could build a city and use natural protection to defend themselves from their enemies. . . . [Scot F. Proctor and Maurine J. Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 71]

2 Nephi 5:11 We began to raise flocks (Illustration): American gobblers had been kept in flocks for many centuries before the Spaniards came, as shown by this ceramic effigy (dated before 500 B.C.) Their flesh, eggs, and feathers served obvious ends, but the whole fowl was also often sacrificed. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 48]

2 Nephi 5:14 I Nephi took the sword of Laban (Similarities of Nephi and Laban to David and Goliath) [Illustration]: "A Comparison of the Swords of Goliath and Laban" [Brett L. Holbrook, "The Sword of Laban as a Symbol of Divine Authority and Kingship," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Spring 1993, pp. 48-53]

 

2 Nephi 5:14 I Nephi took the sword of Laban (Similarities of Nephi and Laban to David and Goliath) [Illustration]: "The Transfer of Regalia in Nephite History" [Brett L. Holbrook, "The Sword of Laban as a Symbol of Divine Authority and Kingship," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Spring 1993, p. 57]

2 Nephi 5:15 Precious ores . . . in great abundance (Illustration): Economic Mineral Resources (Recursos Economicos Minerales). [Clate Mask, "And They Called the Place Nephi," unpublished]

2 Nephi 5:16 I, Nephi, did build a temple . . . after the manner of the temple of Solomon: Temple of the Cross At Palenque, Mexico. (1) Cross section showing three-part plan. (2) Interior of sanctuary with Tablet of the Cross. (3) Fray Torquemada noted the three-part floor plan of many Mesoamerican temples. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 100]

2 Nephi 5:16 I, Nephi, did build a temple . . . after the manner of the temple of Solomon (Illustration): An illustration of Solomon's Temple. The Nephite temple was built like this but was not as richly decorated. Artist: Unlisted. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 85]

2 Nephi 5:16 The temple of Solomon (Illustration): The basic floor plan of both the Tabernacle and the Temple of Solomon. (Notice the elevations both inside and outside the building.) [Clate Mask, "And They Called the Place Bountiful," p. 19]

 

2 Nephi 5:16 The temple of Solomon (Illustration): This tin roof covers the archaeological remains of a temple at Kaminaljuyu dating to around 578 B.C. By November, 1990, when we visited again, they were not allowing tourists inside the excavation of the temple. [Merrill Oaks, "Some Perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography," Slides #32-33]

2 Nephi 5:18-19 They would that I [Nephi] should be their king. . . . Nevertheless, I did for them according to that which was in my power (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

2 Nephi 5:21 A skin of blackness (Illustration): Murals depicting white and dark people at Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico. Murals of the walls of Temple of Warriors depicting white and dark people at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. Photographs [The Book of Mormon, 1962 Seminary Edition, pp. 408-409]

2 Nephi 5:26 I, Nephi, did consecrate Jacob and Joseph that they should be priests and teachers (Illustration): Figure A-1: Egyptian spoon, dated about 1300 BC. Figure A-2: Spoon found at Megiddo, dating to the Iron II (Israelites) Period. Figure A-3: Ancient Mexican worship of the sun. Two men offer burning incense in spoon-like censers. From Father Bernardino de Sahagun's work, preserved in Florence, Italy. (Zelia Nuttal, "A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans," Papers, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 1, No. 7, 1940). Figure A-4: Pharaoh Seti I and his son Ramses II offer incense in a spoon to honor the 76 pharaohs who preceded them on the throne of Egypt. Drawing is from a carving found on a wall of the Osiris temple at Abydos, dating to the 19th Dynasty, ca. 1300 B.C., thus preceding the Exodus by only one generation, by some accounts. (After Richard Lepsius, in Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Vol. 2, Oct.-Nov., 1864, p. 96). [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, pp. 175-178]

2 Nephi 5:34 We Had Already Had Wars and Contentions (Illustration): This chart at La Venta, Mexico illustrates the migrations of the Olmecs from their heartland along the Gulf Coast. The Olmecs (Jaredites) were considered the "mother" culture of Mesoamerica and extended along the Pacific coast of Mesoamerica during the time period when Lehi would have landed. [Clate Mask, "And They Called the Place Bountiful," p. 28]

 

2 Nephi 6:8 And now I, Jacob would speak somewhat concerning these words (Illustration): "Outlines of Passages Quoting Isaiah," [John Gee, "Choose the Things That Please Me": On the Selection of the Isaiah Sections in the Book of Mormon," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 76]

 

2 Nephi 9:21 He suffereth the pains of all men (Illustration): The Greatest of All. Jesus Christ suffered "the pains of every living creature, both men, women, and children, who belong to the family of Adam." Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 95]

2 Nephi 10:3 And they [the Jews] shall crucify him [Christ] (Illustration): The Crucifixion. Jacob said that the wicked among the Jews would crucify Jesus. Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 99]

 

2 Nephi 10:3 And they [the Jews] shall crucify him [Christ] (Illustration): Golgotha. Artist: Scott Snow. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 518]

2 Nephi 11:2 For he [Isaiah] verily saw my Redeemer, even as I [Nephi] have seen him (Illustration): Isaiah Writes of Christ's Birth. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #113]

2 Nephi 12:1 The word that Isaiah, the son of Amoz, saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem (Illustration): Isaiah. The prophet Isaiah saw many events that would take place in the latter days. Nephi included some of Isaiah's prophecies in his own record and encouraged readers to "liken them unto [themselves] and unto all men." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 102]

 

2 Nephi 12:2-3 In the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains (Illustration): The Salt Lake temple stands near the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains. Its soaring pinnacles and peaks recall the holy mountains of ancient times. This great temple, which hundreds of thousands have visited, partially fulfills Isaiah's prophecy that "all nations shall flow" to "the mountain of the Lord's house." [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 98]

 

2 Nephi 12:4 Plowshares (Illustration): Plowshares without the plow, Neot Kedumim, a biblical landscape reserve. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 118]

 

2 Nephi 12:4 Pruninghooks (Illustration): A pruning hook is a knifelike instrument with a short, broad blade used for pruning vines and harvesting grapes. Isaiah describes the pruning process: "For afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect, . . . he shall both cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks, and take away and cut down the branches" (Isaiah 18:5). Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 118]

2 Nephi 12:6 Philistines (Illustration): The cities of the Philistines and their neighbours. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, pp. 1219]

 

2 Nephi 12:10 Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust (Illustration): Cave north of Qumran. Hundreds of natural caves exist int he central hill country of Judea and Samaria as well as in the deserts and fault escarpment overlooking the Dead Sea region. In ancient times, caves served as hiding places, dwellings, and tombs. Photograph by Carrilyn Clarkson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 119]

2 Nephi 12:13 Cedars of Lebanon (Illustration): (1) The Lebanon range of mountains. (2) Snow-capped mountain ridges in Lebanon with cedars at Kadesh. (3) Cedar trees in the Lebanon hills. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, pp. 892-893]

 

2 Nephi 12:13 The Cedars of Lebanon (Illustration): A stand of cedars of Lebanon, east of Byblos. Mature cedars of Lebanon have large trunks and branches that spread out horizontally. In biblical times abundant forests of cedars flourished in the mountains of Lebanon, but now they are sparse. Multiple ancient Near Eastern kingdoms imported cedars of Lebanon to use in many of their fine buildings. Hiram, king of Tyre, through an agreement with King Solomon, transported cedars to Jerusalem for Solomon's temple. Kings David and Solomon each used cedar in the construction of their personal residences. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 121]

 

2 Nephi 12:13 Cedars of Lebanon: (Illustration) Snow-capped Mountain ridges in the lebanon with cedars at Kadesh. (MephA)

 

2 Nephi 12:13 Cedars of Lebanon (Illustration) Cedar trees in the Lebanon Hills.

2 Nephi 12:13 Bashan (Illustration): The Location of Bashan. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 177]

 

2 Nephi 12:13 The oaks of Bashan (Illustration): An oak of Bashan, near Qatzrin, an ancient village from the talmudic period (ca. A.D. 200-500). Bashan was a region north of Gilead and east of the Jordan River. The region was known to be fertile and was celebrated for its oak trees. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 121]

 

2 Nephi 12:15 Upon every high tower (Illustration): Northwest tower of the Ajiloun Castle, Jordan, built by Azz Al Din Ausama in A.D. 1184-85. Large complex towers made of stone were built into the walls of fortified cities. Watchmen and guards stood on these towers ready to warn the city's inhabitants of danger. Photograph by Carrilyn Clarkson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 122]

 

2 Nephi 12:15 Upon every fenced wall (Illustration): Throughout the ages, the walls and fortresses of Jerusalem have been built, destroyed, and sometimes rebuilt. The stones reflect the culture and time of those who placed them. The remains of this wall date back to Isaiah's time. Photograph by John W. Welch. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 122]

2 Nephi 12:16 And upon all the ships of the sea (Illustration): 2 Nephi 12:16: A Comparison of Three Ancient Texts. [Victor L. Ludlow, Isaiah: Prophet, Seer, and Poet, p. 91]

 

2 Nephi 12:16 Ships of Tarshish (Illustration): A Phoenician trading vessel carved on the end of a stone sarcophagus from Tyre. 2nd-1st century B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, pp. 1441]

2 Nephi 12:16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish (Illustration): This Byzantine mosaic of a ship, found in Hisham's Palace near Jericho, may be similar in appearance to the ships of Tarshish. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 26]

 

2 Nephi 12:16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish (Illustration): A model of a Canaanite merchant ship. During the Old Testament period, ships carried a variety of goods for merchants and seamen for navies. The Phoenicians, especially, were famous for their transport of merchandise on elaborately built ships to Mediterranean seaports. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 27]

 

2 Nephi 12:16 The rivers of Egypt (Illustration): Map: Egypt at the time of Isaiah. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah. p.27]

 

2 Nephi 12:20 The bats (Illustration): Bats hanging from tree branches in a centuries-old building, Akko. Several species of bats live in the Near East, most of which eat insects. They dwell communally in caves, crevices, or other dark places. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 123]

2 Nephi 13:1,8 The whole stay of bread (Illustration): The governments of Israel and Judah kept reserve supplies of grain, wine, oil, and weapons in store cities, such as Jerusalem, Beth Shemesh, and Megiddo. The empty grain storage of Megiddo is an example of one reserve. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 7]

 

2 Nephi 13:1,8 The whole stay of water (Illustration): Empty water cistern, Gibeon. Cisterns served as the main water source for many ancient villages and towns. Villagers built channels that collected winter rains into one or more cisterns. Water users would draw from the cistern for domestic purposes. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 7]

2 Nephi 15:1-2 A vineyard in a very fruitful hill (Illustration): A large vineyard located between Jerusalem and Hebron. The Holy Land was celebrated for its wine cultivation, as evidenced by frequent reference to vineyards, grapes, and wine throughout the Old Testament. Isaiah 5:1-2 summarizes the work of preparing a vineyard, which involved making a winepress, frequently hewn from solid rock. Harvested grapes were eaten as fresh fruit, dried into raisins, or prepared and fermented for wine. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 8]

 

2 Nephi 15:1-2 A winepress (Illustration): An ancient winepress. After grapes were harvested, they were carried in baskets to a grape press. There, individuals trod on the grapes so that the juice flowed into a vat, where it was gathered into containers. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 8]

2 Nephi 15:11 Strong drink . . . wine (Illustration): A wineskin, probably made of goat skin, Qatzrin, an ancient village from the talmudic period (ca. A.D. 200-500). Wine was stored in earthenware jars or containers made from leather. Wine and strong drink were made during the Old Testament period and caused intoxication when abused. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham; Carrilyn Clarkson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 46]

 

2 Nephi 15:12 The harp (Illustration): A man in biblical costume plays a harp. Many musical instruments, including the harp, are mentioned in the Bible. The harp was used in the temple and during various festivities. The harp was made of wood, perhaps cypress or almug, and its strings consisted of stretched and dried sheep gut. Photograph by Mindy Anderson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 47]

 

2 Nephi 15:12 The tambourine (Illustration): Tambourine at the marketplace, Old City, Jerusalem. The tambourine mentioned in the Bible was a hand held percussion instrument covered with a membrane. It was used to accompany singing and dancing at festive occasions. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 47]

 

2 Nephi 15:30 Like the roaring of the sea (Illustration): The roaring waves of the Mediterranean Sea, near Akko. In the Old Testament, the Mediterranean Sea is called the Great Sea because of its great size compared to the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee. It is also called the Western Sea because it lies west of the Holy Land. It stretches west from the coastline approximately 2100 miles to Gibraltar. Biblical coastal cities on its shores included Sidon, Tyre, Akko, Joppa, Ashdod, and Ashkelon. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 101]

 

2 Nephi 16:6 Taken with tongs from off the altar (Illustration): Canaanite horned altar or incense burner from Megiddo in ancient Palestine (c. 1900 B.C.) in the Rockefeller Museum, Jerusalem. This distinctive style of altar was also used by the Israelites (see Leviticus 4:7; 1 Kings 1:50; 2:28). Courtesy LaMar C. Berrett. [Daniel Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p. 188]

 

2 Nephi 16:6 Taken with tongs from off the altar (Illustration): Four-horned incense burner from Monte Alban Period I (Southern Mexico)] This illustration shows the similarity in style with the four-horned Hebrew altars. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 88]

2 Nephi 17:1-7 (The Assyrian Empire) [Illustration]: Syria Pays Tribute to Tiglath Pileser III. Chart: Highlights of the Assyrian Empire during the Ministry of the Prophet Isaiah and Later. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 28]

2 Nephi 17:1 Syria (Illustration): Centers of Aramaean settlement. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 91]

2 Nephi 17:1 Israel (Illustration): The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. [LDS Bible, Map 9, 1979 Edition]

2 Nephi 17:2 Ephraim (Illustration): (1) The hilly lands allotted to Ephraim, in central west Palestine. (2) The mountains of Ephraim. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 464]

 

2 Nephi 17:2 Ephraim (Illustration): The tribes of Israel. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1594]

 

2 Nephi 17:3 The conduit of the upper pool (Illustration): The Gihon Spring at the entrance of Hezekiah's Tunnel, Jerusalem. The Gihon Spring flows from a natural cave on the west side of the valley of Kidron, south of where Solomon's temple once stood. In the Old Testament period, the spring was the chief source of water for Jerusalem's inhabitants. Solomon was anointed king near the spring in a sacred ceremony. Perhaps other kings were anointed here as well. From this spring King Hezekiah's engineers ran a tunnel under the city to safeguard Jerusalem's water supply from the invading Assyrians. The Gihon Spring is likely the "upper pool" mentioned by Isaiah. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 9]

2 Nephi 17:8 For the head of Syria is Damascus . . . and the head of Ephraim is Samaria (Illustration): The kingdoms of Israel and Syria attack Judah. Artist: Tom Child. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 112]

 

2 Nephi 17:8 Within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people (Illustration): Map: Campaigns of Salmaneser V. and Sargon II (Isaiah 20). Adapted from Macmillan Bible Atlas, 149. Assyria, the enemy of Israel, had embarked on a ruthless campaign to expand its borders. Isaiah's specific prophecy that in "threescore and five years" Ephraim, or the northern kingdom of Israel, would no longer be a kingdom or a nation was fulfilled. Ephraim fell in 721 B.C., midway through Isaiah's ministry. King Sargon II of Assyria deported most of Ephraim's citizens, some of the ten tribes of Israel, to the north countries (see 2 Kings 17:5-6). Photograph by Biblical Archaeological Review Mesop 4-085 Erich Lessing/Art Resource, N.Y. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 10]

2 Nephi 17:9 Samaria (Illustration): The location of Samaria. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 3, p. 1572 ]

 

2 Nephi 17:9 Samaria (Illustration): The Tribes of Israel. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 3, p. 1594]

2 Nephi 17:14 A virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel (Illustration): The Birth of Christ. Isaiah saw in vision the birth of Jesus Christ. Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 113]

 

2 Nephi 17:18 The Lord shall hiss . . . for the bee (Illustration): A tradition relates that bee-keepers of the ancient Near East called their bees by a whistle or hiss. The bees would then gather at their hives, usually made of clay or baskets. This tradition may have been known to those who heard Isaiah prophesy that the Lord would whistle for the fly and the bee. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 26]

 

2 Nephi 17:18 Egypt (Illustration): Map: Egypt at the Time of Isaiah. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 27]

2 Nephi 17:18 Assyria (Illustration): Assyria and surrounding regions. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 142]

2 Nephi 17:20 The beard (Illustration): Bearded man, incense burner from Maya zone at Iximche, near Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Reproduced from Discoveries of the Truth by Diane E. Wirth, 1978. (Photo courtesy of Musee de l'Homme, Paris.) [Diane E. Wirth, A Challenge to the Critics, p. 30]

 

2 Nephi 17:20 The beard (Illustration): A bearded figure from the Rio Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico (Neg. #274381, courtesy Dept. Library Services, American Museum of Natural History.) [Diane E. Wirth, A Challenge to the Critics, p. 30]

 

2 Nephi 18:6 Waters of Shiloah (Illustration): Plan of the Siloam area, including the pools and the channels which carried the water into the city of Jerusalem. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1452]

 

2 Nephi 18:6 Waters of Shiloah (Illustration): Plan showing the probable location of the "Sepulchres of the Kings" within the city of David, and the positions of other tombs dating from Solomon to the fall of Judah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1416]

 

2 Nephi 18:6-7 The waters of Shiloah (Illustration): The Pool of Siloam of New Testament times is thought to be the same as the "waters of Shiloah" mentioned by Isaiah. The pool receives its waters from the Gihon Spring that flows through Hezekiah's Tunnel. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 30]

 

2 Nephi 18:6-7 The waters of Shiloah (Illustration): The Gihon Spring at the entrance of Hezekiah's Tunnel, Jerusalem. The Gihon Spring flows from a natural cave on the west side of the valley of Kidron, south of where Solomon's temple once stood to the Pool of Siloam of New Testament times. In the Old Testament period, the spring was the chief source of water for Jerusalem's inhabitants. Solomon was anointed king near the spring in a sacred ceremony. Perhaps other kings were anointed here as well. From this spring King Hezekiah's engineers ran a tunnel under the city to safeguard Jerusalem's water supply from the invading Assyrians. The Gihon Spring is likely the "upper pool" mentioned by Isaiah. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 9]

 

2 Nephi 18:6-7 The Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria (Illustration): The waters of the river represent the king of Assyria who leads his great, destructive armies "like a flood" to "cover the earth" (see Jeremiah 46:8). Tiglath-pileser III's Flood Metaphor. Map: The Assyrian Empire, 9th to 7th Centuries B.C. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 31]

2 Nephi 18:14 A stone of stumbling (Illustration): This well worn path near Montfort, northern Israel, is filled with stumbling stones that may cause path users to trip and fall. Stumbling stones were much more common for travelers in the ancient world than now, with today's numerous cement sidewalks and paved roads. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 77]

 

2 Nephi 19:1 Land of Zebulun (Illustration): The territory of Zebulun with approximate boundaries. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1676]

 

2 Nephi 19:1 The land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali (Illustration): The lands of Zebulun and Naphtali are in Galilee, where Jesus lived much of His youth. Artist: Tom Child. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 117]

2 Nephi 19:1 Land of Naphtali (Illustration): The land occupied by the tribe of Naphtali. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 1054]

2 Nephi 19:1 Jordan (Illustration): The Jordan valley in Old Testament times. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, pp. 811]

2 Nephi 19:1 Galilee of the Nations (Illustration): New Testament Galilee: the scene of Christ's childhood and early ministry. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 539]

 

2 Nephi 19:4 The yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor (Illustration): In biblical times, the staff and rod were used by taskmasters on slaves. A yoke was a wooden frame designed to harness together beasts of burden. These three items--the yoke, staff, and rod--signify oppression, or the burdens placed on Israel by its neighbors (Isaiah 10:5, 24-27). In particular, the language of this verse recalls the manner in which Egypt oppressed the Israelites before Moses led them out of captivity.

     Above: Pair of yokes with crossbar and other attachments. Jericho. A yoke is a wooden frame designed to harness animals such as oxen or asses, to wheeled vehicles, plows, or other agricultural implements. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 79]

 

2 Nephi 19:9-10 The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones (Illustration): Fallen bricks with hewn stones in the background at Hisham's Palace, near Jericho. In Isaiah's time, bricks were made of mud or clay mixed with sand, straw, or other material, and then baked in a kiln or dried by the sun. Bricks were inferior to hewn stone because bricks were more breakable. Additionally, hewn stone was more expensive to prepare. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 11]

 

22 Nephi 19:9-10 The sycamores are cut down (Illustration): The fruit of a sycamore tree is abundant and nearly ripe, Jericho. The sycamore is a fruit-bearing tree valued for its figs and lumber. The Egyptians used its wood to make coffins, but apparently sycamore wood was not as precious as that of a cedar (Isaiah 9:10). The sycamore grows to a height of forty feet. Its branches spread widely from a short trunk. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 11]

2 Nephi 20:5-6 O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation (Illustration): Assyrian Warfare. Illustrations by Anne Stewart. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 32]

 

2 Nephi 20:5-6 To tread them down like the mire of the streets (Illustration): Mire on the pathways of the Biblical Zoo, Jerusalem. Many streets in the biblical period lacked asphalt, cement, or even paving stones. They became deep mud, or mire, during the rainy season, January through March. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 33]

 

2 Nephi 20:7 The Light of Israel . . . shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day (Illustration): Thorns near Bethel. Thorns are prickly and fruitless plants that exist in the dry countryside of the Holy Land. The Bible mentions the vexatious nature of thorns (Genesis 3:18; Numbers 33:55; Joshua 23:13). Thorns are valuable only as quick burning fuel. Hence Isaiah's prophecy that the wicked, at Jesus' second coming, would burn as easily as thorns are consumed. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 123]

2 Nephi 20:9 Calno, Carchemish, Hamath, Arpad (Illustration): Centers of Aramaean settlement. Aramaeans are usually called "Syrians" in the English Old Testament. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 91]

 

2 Nephi 20:15 The axe (Illustration): An ax leaning against a threshing sledge, Qatzrin, an ancient village from the talmudic period (ca. A.D. 2020-500). Axes were common tools used anciently for trimming or felling trees, clearing heavy brush, or quarrying stone. Similar to its modern counterpart, the ax had a wooden handle with an iron head. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 34]

 

2 Nephi 20:15 The saw (Illustration): A saw leaning on a post near a home, Qatzrin. The saw served in biblical times to cut both wood and stone. Blades were usually made of bronze or iron. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 34]

 

2 Nephi 20:22 Thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea (Illustration): Sand dunes on the Mediterranean seashore, near Gaza. The great stretch of sandy seashore next to the Mediterranean Sea together with the immense deserts of sand throughout the Near East have made sand the subject of many similes in the scriptures. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 101]

 

2 Nephi 20:26 Midian (Illustration): The Territory of the Midianites. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 998]

2 Nephi 20:26 Rock of Oreb (Illustration): The land around Jezreel. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 789]

2 Nephi 20:28 Aiath (Illustration): The situation of Ai in relation to Jericho. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 26]

 

2 Nephi 20:28-32 Aiath, Migron, Michmash, Geba, Ramath, Gibeah, Gallim, Laish, Anathoth, Madmenah, Gebim, Nob, Jerusalem (Illustration): The Assyrian forces approach and threaten Jerusalem but are defeated by the Lord of Hosts. Artist: Tom Child. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 120]

2 Nephi 20:28-32 (Assyria Marches to Jerusalem) (Illustration) Map: Assyria Marches to Jerusalem. Arrow indicates possible route of Assyrian army. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 29]

2 Nephi 20:28 Michmash (Illustration): The location of Michmash, Geba, Gibeah and Bethel in relation to Jerusalem. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 997]

2 Nephi 20:29 Geba (Illustration): Geba, a town of Benjamin. After fortification by King Asa it was regarded as the northern limit of Judah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 544]

2 Nephi 20:29 Ramath (Illustration): The Possible locations for biblical Ramah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1318]

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): The hill of el-Jib, the modern site of the ancient city of Gibeon. (2) The water-system at Gibeon consisted of a water-chamber cut into the rock, reached by a spiral staircase, and an Iron Age tunnel of 93 steps leading to the spring outside the city wall. Section through the east side of the hill, showing the stepped tunnel and spring. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): l. Section through the east side of the hill, showing the stepped tunnel and spring. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

 

2 Nephi 20:29 Gibeah of Saul (Illustration): (2) The water-system at Gibeon consisted of a water-chamber cut into the rock, reached by a spiral staircase, and an Iron Age tunnel of 93 steps leading to the spring outside the city wall. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, pp. 558-559]

2 Nephi 20:31 Madmenah (Illustration): Proposed site for Madmenah. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 930]

2 Nephi 21:1 There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse (Illustration): Illustration of Isaiah 11:1, 10: The "rod," "stem of Jesse," "branch," "roots," and "root." [Victor L. Ludlow, Isaiah: Prophet, Seer, and Poet, p. 171]

 

2 Nephi 21:1 A rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots (Illustration): Old olive trees, Garden of Gethsemane, Jerusalem. Note the rods or branches growing out of he trunk of each tree. When the olive tree is cut down, new shoots grow out of both its old trunk as well as its far-reaching root system. Olive trees grow to a height of about eighteen feet and live for centuries. The trees' thick, gnarled trunks produce numerous branches. Olivewood is a valuable source of lumber for artisans and craftsmen. For instance, artisans carved the cherubim that were housed in the holy of holies of Solomon's temple from olivewood. The cherubim were then overlaid with pure gold. Oil produced from olives was an important food source and was used in oil lamps. Ceremonially, olive oil was used for the coronation of kings and the ritual anointing of persons and things in ancient temples. Photograph by Carrilyn Clarkson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, pp. 80-81]

2 Nephi 21:6 The leopard (Illustration): Leopard, Hai-Bar Yotvata Nature Reserve. The leopard, a spotted cat found in the Holy Land, feeds on lambs and other small animals, thus posing a threat to the livelihood of shepherds. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 102]

 

2 Nephi 21:6 The kid (Illustration): Six goat kids foraging on a hillside near Bethel. Domesticated goats served many useful purposes to Old Testament peoples, providing meat, milk, leather, and goat-hair for cloth and tents. The kids were especially valued as food. Goats, unlike cattle, were able to feed on moderately barren ground. They were easy prey for carnivorous beasts. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 102]

2 Nephi 21:11 The Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people (Illustration): Orson Hyde (1805-1878). [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, pp. 1329]

2 Nephi 21:11 Pathros (Illustration): Old Testament Africa. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 18]

 

2 Nephi 21:11 Pathros (Illustration): The Course of the River Nile. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 1087]

2 Nephi 21:11 Cush (Illustration): Old Testament Africa. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 18]

2 Nephi 21:11 Elam (Illustration): Elam, the ancient name for the plain of Khuzistan. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 433]

2 Nephi 21:14 Edom (Illustration): (1) The land of the Edomites between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqabah. (2) The mountains of Edom, near Petra. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 411]

 

2 Nephi 21:14 Edom (Illustration): The route of the ancient "King's Highway." [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 860]

 

2 Nephi 21:14 Edom (Illustration): . The mountains of Edom, near Petra[Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 860]

2 Nephi 21:14 Moab (Illustration): Moab and possible sites of the "city of Moab." [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 1014]

2 Nephi 21:14 Ammon (Illustration): The territory of the Ammonites, to the east of the river Jabbok. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, p. 41]

 

2 Nephi 21:15 The Tongue of the Egyptian Sea (Illustration): Egypt, showing the Wadi el-'Arish and the river Shihor, both possible identifications with the "River of Egypt." [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 1, pp. 431]

2 Nephi 23:14 As the chased roe and as a sheep that no man taketh up (Illustration): A "chased roe" is a hunted deer, and "sheep that no man taketh up" are vulnerable because their shepherds are absent. The imagery implies that the wicked will be like hunted deer. They will flee for their lives during a time of wars.

     Gazelles, Biblical Zoo, Jerusalem. According to Mosaic law, the roe deer was a clean animal that could be eaten. It may have been a delicacy as King Solomon made it part of the royal table (1 Kings 4:22-23). Many species of deer and antelope still inhabit Israel and may be seen in the upper Galilee region or Judean hills. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 48]

2 Nephi 23:17 Medes (Illustration): Media [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary , Vol. 2, p. 970]

2 Nephi 23:19 Chaldees (Illustration): Chaldea: a name for part of Babylonia taken over for the whole land in 8th and 7th centuries B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 257]

2 Nephi 23:20 Arabian (Illustration): Ancient Arabia. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 85]

2 Nephi 24:22-23 I will rise up . . . and cut off from Babylon the name (Illustration): Map: The Babylonian Empire, 605 to 538 B.C. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 35]

 

2 Nephi 24:22-23 The broom (Illustration): Broom with other household items, Qatzrin. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 35]

2 Nephi 25-30 (Isaiah's and Nephi's Theme of Pride) [Illustration]: Table 1. Isaiah's Prophecies in 2 Nephi 12-24, Parallel to Isaiah 2-14 / Nephi's Prophecies in 2 Nephi. [David Rolph Seely, "Nephi's Use of Isaiah 2-14 in 2 Nephi 12-30," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 154]

 

2 Nephi 25-30 (Isaiah's and Nephi's Theme of Pride) [Illustration]: Table 2. The Theme of Pride in 2 Nephi 12-14 (Parallel to Isaiah 2-14). [David Rolph Seely, "Nephi's Use of Isaiah 2-14 in 2 Nephi 12-30," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, pp. 157-158]

 

2 Nephi 25-30 (Isaiah's and Nephi's Theme of Pride) [Illustration]: Nephi's Prophecy: Pride in 2 Nephi 25-30. [David Rolph Seely, "Nephi's Use of Isaiah 2-14 in 2 Nephi 12-30," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, pp. 159-160]

2 Nephi 25:1 For they know not concerning the manner of prophesying among the Jews (Illustration): Chart: Five Keys to Understanding Isaiah Given in 2 Nephi 25. [John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart 84]

 

2 Nephi 25:1 Now I, Nephi, do speak somewhat concerning the words which I have written (Illustration): "Outlines of Passages Quoting Isaiah," [John Gee, "Choose the Things That Please Me": On the Selection of the Isaiah Sections in the Book of Mormon," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 76]

2 Nephi 25:13 After he is laid in a sepulchre for the space of three days he shall rise from the dead (Illustration): He Is Risen. "Behold they will crucify him; and after he is laid in a sepulchre for the space of three days he shall rise from the dead, with healing in his wings." Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 130]

2 Nephi 26:25 Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters (Illustration): The Dan River in northern Galilee. Just as the waters of the Dan River, the chief tributary to the Jordan River, have brought life for thousands of years to hundreds of thousands of people, so does Jesus Christ being spiritual life to all who come to him, the living waters. Photograph by Arnold H. Green. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 94]

2 Nephi 27:9 But the book shall be delivered unto a man [Joseph Smith] (Illustration): Moroni Delivering the Golden Plates. Joseph Smith, the man Isaiah speaks of in chapter 27, verse 9, wrote: "On the twenty-second day of September, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven, having gone as usual at the end of another year to the place where they [the plates] were deposited, the same heavenly messenger [Moroni] delivered them up to me" (Joseph Smith--History 1:59). Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 136]

 

2 Nephi 27:9 27:15 Take these words ... and deliver them to another (Illustration): The Text of the Anthon Manuscript. Two inverted parallel structures appear on the document when the text is formatted to illustrate separate phrases. The script reads from right to left. [C. Wade Brown. The First Page of the Golden Plates, pp. 80-81]

 

2 Nephi 27:9 27:15 Take these words ... and deliver them to another (Illustration): The Text of the Anthon Manuscript. Two inverted parallel structures appear on the document when the text is formatted to illustrate separate phrases. The script reads from right to left. [C. Wade Brown. The First Page of the Golden Plates, pp. 80-81]

2 Nephi 27:12 Three witnesses shall behold it (Illustration): Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, Martin Harris. The Lord provided witnesses to testify and establish His word. The Three Witnesses--Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin harris--testified that an angel of God showed them the gold plates of the Book of Mormon. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 137]

2 Nephi 27:9 2 Nephi 27:15 Take these words . . . and deliver them to another [Illustration]: The Text of the Anthon Manuscript. Two inverted parallel structures appear on the document when the text is formatted to illustrate separate phrases. The script reads from right to left. [C. Wade Brown, The First Page of the Golden Plates, pp. 80-81]

2 Nephi 27:15 Take these words which are not sealed and deliver them to another, that he may show them unto the learned (Illustration): This document, which may be the original paper carried by Martin Harris to show Charles Anthon in New York City, presents some of the Book of Mormon characters. Courtesy Library Archives, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, The Auditorium, Independence, Missouri]

 

2 Nephi 27:15 Take these words which are not sealed and deliver them to another, that he may show them unto the learned (Illustration). Professor Charles Anthon (1787-1867) [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1367]

2 Nephi 27:15 Take these words which are not sealed and deliver them to another, that he may show them unto the learned (Illustration): Markings on the inscribed roller stamp ("cylinder seal") found at Tlatilco in the Valley of Mexico (bottom) and Anthon Transcript equivalents. [Carl H. Jones, "The 'Anthon Transcript' and Two Mesoamerican Cylinder Seals," Newsletter and Proceedings of the S.E.H.A., Number 122, p. 5]

2 Nephi 28:3 The churches which are built up, and not unto the Lord . . . shall say (Illustration): Chart: The Ways of the Devil: 2 Nephi 28:3-30. (Source: Miriam Horwinski, teaching assistant of John W. Welch, Book of Mormon 121H, Brigham Young University, fall 1997) [John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart 78]

2 Nephi 28:10 And the blood of the saints shall cry from the ground (Illustration): Various cultures of Mesoamerica portrayed in terracotta. Top left, Caucasian female. Guerrero, Pacific Coast: Top right, Negro, Plateau of Mexico, Tlapacoyan; center, Semitic-type bearded man, Tabasco; bottom left, Caucasian girl, Veracruz; Bottom right, Oriental head, Plateau of Mexico, Tlapacoyan (all in private collections). Drawing after photograph from The Art of Terracotta Pottery in Pre-Columbian Central and South America, by Alexander von Wuthenau (New York: Crown Publishers Inc.) [Diane E. Wirth, A Challenge to the Critics, p. 19]

 

2 Nephi 29:3-6 A Bible! A Bible! (Chiasm) [Illustration]: A Bible! A Bible! (Chiasm) [Donald W. Parry, The Book of Mormon Text Reformatted according to Parallelistic Patterns, p. 108]