First Nephi

 

 

The Lord Leads His Covenant Children

      (1 Nephi )


 

 

 

 

FIRST NEPHI

 

 

1 Nephi--Title The First Book of Nephi--His Reign and Ministry (Illustration): Title of First Nephi -- Printer's Manuscript. [Library-Archives, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, The Auditorium, Independence]

1 Nephi-Title The First Book of Nephi His Reign and Ministry (Illustration): Original Book of Mormon Manuscript Holdings in the Church Historian's Office. [Dean C. Jessee, "The Original Book of Mormon Manuscript," BYU Studies, Vol. 10, 1970 Spring, pp. 259-278. Reprinted by F.A.R.M.S.]

1 Nephi-Title The First Book of Nephi (A Note on the Original Manuscript and the Printers Manuscript) [Illustration]: Locations of Extant Text. [Royal Skousen ed., The Original Manuscript of the Book of Mormon: Typographical Facsimile of the Extant Text, FARMS, p. 37]

1 Nephi-Title The First Book of Nephi (A Note on the Original Manuscript and the Printers Manuscript) [Illustration]: Gatherings. [Royal Skousen ed., The Original Manuscript of the Book of Mormon: Typographical Facsimile of the Extant Text, FARMS, p. 37]

1 Nephi-Title The First Book of Nephi (Note on the Original Manuscript and the Printers Manuscript) [Illustration]: Original Manuscript, 1 Nephi 7:17--8:2 written by an unidentified scribe with its typewritten equivalent to the side showing how few corrections were made from dictation. [Dean C. Jessee, "The Original Book of Mormon Manuscript," BYU Studies, Vol. 10, 1970 Spring, pp. 259-278. Reprinted by F.A.R.M.S.]

1 Nephi 1 Superscription . . . Verses . . . etc. (Illustration): A facsimile of the title page of First Nephi in the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Deseret Book Company, 150th Year Anniversary Facsimile of the 1830 Edition of the Book of Mormon, 1980]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #1): A Chiastic Outline of First Nephi. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #2): Parallel Accounts in First Nephi: Lehi's Account (1 Nephi 1-9) and Nephi's Account (1 Nephi 10-22). [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #3): Nephi's Great Communications from the Lord. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #4): Nephi's Great Communications to His People. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #5): Lehi's Account: Chiasmus in 1 Nephi 1-9. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #6): Nephi's Account: Chiasmus in 1 Nephi 10-22. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html] 

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #7): Obtaining the Brass Plates. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #8): Constructing the Ship. [Noel B. Reynolds ("Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi Title The First Book of Nephi (Illustration #9): The Six Stories of First Nephi. [Noel B. Reynolds, "Nephi's Outline, BYU Studies , Vol. 20, No. 2, as presented in Richard G. Grant, "Nephi's Masterpiece: The Amazing Structure of First Nephi," http://www.cometozarahemla.org/nephi/first-nephi.html]

1 Nephi 1 (Chapter Divisions) [Illustration]: Comparison of Chapter Divisions: 1830 and 1981. (John Welch and Morgan Ashton, "Comparison of Chapter Divisions: 1830 and 1981," in Charting the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., Packet 1]

1 Nephi 1:2 Nephi (Illustration): Lihyan Use of the Personal Name "Nafy" (Nephi). Engraved in ancient Lihyan script on a tomb marker near al-Ula, Saudi Arabia, 3rd or 4th century B.C. The "Ha" before NAFY is the definite article "the." Source: W. F. Winnett and W. L. Reed, "Ancient Records from the North Arabia" (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1970). [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 91]

1 Nephi 1:2 I make a record in the language of my father (Chiastic Structure): Global Literal Chiasmus of 165 Repeated Elements in 1 Nephi. [H. Clay Gorton, A New Witness for Christ: Chiastic Structures in the Book of Mormon, pp. 24-27]

1 Nephi 1:2 I make a record in the language of my father (Chiastic Structure): Global Conceptual Chiasmus in 1 Nephi. [H. Clay Gorton, A New Witness for Christ: Chiastic Structures in the Book of Mormon, pp. 29-31]

1 Nephi 1:2 The learning of the Jews (Chiastic Structure): List of First Person Book of Mormon Authors in Order of Percent Chiasticity. [H. Clay Gorton, A New Witness for Christ: Chiastic Structures in the Book of Mormon, pp. 20-21]

1 Nephi 1:2 The learning of the Jews and the language of the Egyptians (Illustration): This illustration shows how Egyptian writing would represent the name "Ammon" moving from complicated "Hieroglyphics" to an extremely abbreviated "Reformed Egyptian" at 600 B.C. [Hugh Nibley, Since Cumorah, F.A.R.M.S., p. 149]

1 Nephi 1:4 The reign of Zedekiah (Illustration): The Babylonian Empire of Nebuchadnezzar at the time of Zedekiah. [Adapted from W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1000]

1 Nephi 1:4 Zedekiah (Illustration): This diagrammatic chart shows the genealogy of Zedekiah (Mattaniah) and the relationship between him and Jehoiakim, Jehoahaz, and Jehoiachin. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1678]

1 Nephi 1:4 The first year of the reign of Zedekiah (Illustration): This Babylonian Chronicle text tells how Nebuchadrezzar appointed "a king of his own choice", i.e. Zedekiah (Mattaniah), instead of Jehoiachin after the Babylonian capture of Jerusalem in March 597 B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1679] 

1 Nephi 1:4 Lehi (Illustration): Potsherd found in 1938 on the Gulf of Aqaba, dating from approximately the time of Lehi, and bearing the name Lehi (from BASOR, #80, 1940). [Hugh Nibley, Since Cumorah, F.A.R.M.S., p. 169]

1 Nephi 1:4 In the commencement of the first year of the reign of Zedikiah (Allen Theory) (Illustration): Chronology of Kings of Judah Who Were Named Zedikiah. by Dale Parkes [Joseph L. Allen, "Zedikiah 1," in The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol 111. issue 111 (September 2001), p. 11]

1 Nephi 1:4 My father, Lehi, having dwelt at Jerusalem in all his days (Illustration): Map 5 JERUSALEM -- 701 B.C. In 705 B.C., Hezekiah king of Judah "rebelled" against Assyrian control, and refused to pay the tribute to the Assyrians which had been agreed to by his unwise father king Ahaz. Hezekiah undertook massive preparations to protect Jerusalem and Judah's other cities against the inevitable Assyrian attack (see 2 Kings 18-19 and 2 Chronicles 32). In Jerusalem, he had the old Siloam channel destroyed because it was outside the city wall and exposed to potential attackers. Then he had an underground tunnel constructed, which brought Gihon's waters (1) through the hill of the City of David to Siloam Pool (7). We call this ancient water system Hezekiah's Tunnel (9). By 701 B.C. he also had Jerusalem's walls repaired and a massive new wall built to surround the exposed neighborhoods of Makhtesh (5) and Mishneh (8). A portion of "Hezekiahs Wall" has been discovered (P), and is visible in today's Jewish Quarter. Jerusalem survived the 701 B.C. Assyrian attack. [Jeffrey R. Chadwick, "The Development of Biblical Jerusalem," 1998, Map 5, unpublished paper] 

1 Nephi 1:17 He returned to his own house at Jerusalem (Illustration): Map 6 JERUSALEM -- 700 BC to 587 BC. By 701 B.C., Jerusalem's population was about 20,000 people. From 700 to 600 B.C., succeeding generations of the Mishneh population built their quarter into a respectable, upscale neighborhood of the capital. During king Josiah's reign (640 B.C.) such notables as the prophetess Huldah, wife of a royal minister, lived there (see 2 Kings 22:14, where the Hebrew Mishneh is translated "college"). It is likely that the house of Lehi, a descendant of Manasseh, would have been in the Mishneh (10). Housing in the city filled all the area of the Western Hills or Mount Zion (see Zephaniah 1:10-11, where Mishneh is translated as "second"). The topographic cove in the northern wall of Hezekiah, later called the "Broad Wall" (P) was fortified with a straighter outer wall and defensive tower (U) now known as the Israelite Tower.. This is the Jerusalem of Jeremiah and Nephi, which fell to the Babylonian army in 587 B.C., when the city and Solomon's temple were destroyed. [Jeffrey R. Chadwick, "The Development of Biblical Jerusalem," Map 6 in a 1998 unpublished paper] 

1 Nephi 1:17 I make an abridgment of the record of my father (Illustration): Writings of Lehi Quoted or Paraphrased by Nephi and Jacob. (Source: S. Kent Brown, "Lehi's Personal Record: Quest for a Missing Source," BYU Studies 24:1, 1984: 19-42). [John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart 19]

1 Nephi 1:19 The Jews did mock him [Lehi] because of the things which he testified of them (Illustration): Lehi Prophesying to the People of Jerusalem. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #300]

1 Nephi 1:19 The Jews did mock him [Lehi] because of the things which he testified of them (Illustration): Lehi Preaching in Jerusalem. Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 2]

1 Nephi 1:20 When the Jews heard these things they were angry with him (Illustration): "And when the Jews heard these things they were angry with him . . . and they also sought his life," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures From the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1023]

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 2:4 Lehi Departs into the Wilderness (Year 001)

1 Nephi 2:4 He departed into the wilderness (Illustration): The ancient King's Highway in modern Jordan is a likely route for Lehi and his family to have traveled as they journeyed south. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 16-17]

1 Nephi 2:4 He [Lehi] departed into the wilderness (Illustration): Lehi's Family Leaving Jerusalem. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #301]

1 Nephi 2:4 He [Lehi] departed into the wilderness (Illustration): Lehi's Family Leaving Jerusalem. The Lord warned Lehi in a dream to "take his family and depart into the wilderness." Artist: Scott Snow. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 4]

1 Nephi 2:4 Tents [Camels] (Illustration): This stone relief from the palace of Sennacherib in ancient Nineveh illustrates the 701 B.C. (probable date) Assyrian capture of the city of Lachish in Judah . . . within 25 miles of Lehi's city of Jerusalem. It also shows how seventh-century B.C. Jews loaded a camel. Lehi and his group, once they were on the desert probably looked much like this. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, "In Search of Lehi's Trail -- Part 1: The Preparation," in The Ensign, September, 1976, p. 39]

1 Nephi 2:4 Tents [Camels] (Illustration): Camels can carry loads of up to 1,000 pounds, go two or three weeks without water, and survive in scorching heart of 140 degrees Fahrenheit. So important are camels "there are a thousand Arabic terms for (them) in various stages of growth. They still supply the desert nomad with transport, food, and wealth. He drinks their milk, eats their flesh, weaves their hair into tents and cloaks, burns their dung for fuel, uses their urine for medicine and hair tonic, and uses the beast to turn his waterwheel and pull his plow." The lack of mention of them in the record is not surprising, as they were the common means of transportation in the desert. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 23] 

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration #1]: Lehi's Route from Jerusalem to the Red Sea. Four proposed routes of escape. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 8]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration #2]: Lehi's Route from Jerusalem to the Red Sea. Route #1. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 8]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 8]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration]: Escape From Jerusalem. The ruins of the church at wadi El Kharrar which, according to tradition, marks the hill where Elijah was taken into heaven. On the opposite bank of the wadi are the ruins of another church which marks the spot where John the Baptist is supposed to have preached. This area immediately to the east of Jerusalem, was known in the New Testament as the "wilderness" (of Judea). [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 20]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration #4]: Lehi's Route from Jerusalem to the Red Sea--The King's Highway. Also showing wadi El-Kharrar and the Wilderness of Judea. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 8]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration]: The King's Highway south of Rabboth Ammon ran through fertile farmlands where most of the settlements of the Ammonites and Moabites were situated. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 20]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration #5]: Lehi's Route from Jerusalem to the Red Sea--The Way of the Wilderness. Also showing wadi El-Kharrar and the Wilderness of Judea. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 8]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration]: Escape from Jerusalem. A Bedouin stands by his tent against a backdrop of the Jordanian desert. The desert highway, or "Way of the Wilderness" ran along the edge of this desert terrain. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 20]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration]: Escape from Jerusalem. The southern part of the King's Highway ran through the mountains, through far less fertile country than the northern part. This wadi marks the border between Moab and Edom. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 20]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the Red Sea (Potter) [Illustration]: The Route of the Exodus. This map shows that in retracing the route of the Exodus, the Jews would have headed east past Jericho, across the river Jordan into the wilderness and then south to the Red Sea. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS Bible Dictionary, Map 3]

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Lehi's Trail into Wadi Tayyib al Ism (The Valley of Lemuel). [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 26]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): Map showing three routes from Jerusalem to the Red Sea. [Kelly Ogden, unpublished]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): Map: Lehi Departs into the Wilderness. Adapted from a map by Randall Spackman [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection] 

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): The tremendous Dead Sea rift zone, of which this Wadi Al-Arabah gorge is part, extends through parts of Jordan and Israel . . . The Arabah is the deepest rift on the face of the earth and plunges to over 1,300 feet below sea level at the Dead Sea. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 26-27]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): The Wadi al 'Araba runs between Aqaba and the Dead Sea. During a rainy period, the wadi is filled with water; when it is dry, it becomes a trail through the desert area. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, pp. 54-55]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): Today the Jordanian port of Aqaba (foreground) and the Israeli town of Eilat (background) on the Red Sea mark the end of Wadi Arabah. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-77]

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the Borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): The Borders near the Red Sea. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 34] 

1 Nephi 2:5 He came down by the Borders near the shore of the Red Sea (Illustration): The borders near the shore of the Red Sea. Adapted from a general map of the area of the travels of George Potter and Craig Thorsted. (George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num. 1, FARMS, 1999, p. 58) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

1 Nephi 2:5 BY the borders near the seashore (Illustration): The shore of the Red Sea or Gulf of Aqaba going south into Arabia. The reader should notice the mountain "borders" on the left (east). Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 24]

1 Nephi 2:5 Borders near . . . nearer (Illustration): Map of the wilderness and political borders from Jerusalem to the Red Sea. [Keith Christensen, The Unknown Witness, pp. 237-238, unpublished] 

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Adapted from a photograph, taken from space, of northwest Arabia near the Gulf of Aqaba. Those geographical places mentioned by the Hiltons in describing Lehi's journey to the valley of Lemuel are highlighted and labeled. Photo by Landsat, US Geological Survey, EROS Data Center. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia, p. 50] 

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Modern Road from Aqaba through al-Bad. The modern highway mostly follows the ancient trail. Map from the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia, p. 52] 

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): The two mountain ranges of Midian. Map: The Ancient World at the Time of the Patriarchs. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS King James Bible, 1979 edition]

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): Blue boxes denote the two mountain ranges in Midian. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 1, p. 3, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): Mountain range or borders slightly inland from the shoreline of the Red Sea. The second and more easterly mountain range is twenty to thirty miles inland, and its peaks reach a height of over 7,800 feet. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 25]

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): Shoreline mountains blocking passage down the shoreline. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 24] 

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): Diagram of how the trail deviates eastward, because of the trail blockage, into the wadi . [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 25]

1 Nephi 2:5 The borders near . . . nearer the Red Sea (Illustration): Hilton Theory and Potter Theory compared: According to the Hilton Theory, Lehi took another branch of the trade route from Aqaba to al-Bada'a. Adapted from a general map of the area of the travels of George Potter and Craig Thorsted. (George D Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num. 1, FARMS, 1999, p. 58) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection] 

1 Nephi 2:6 When He Had Traveled Three Days in the Wilderness, He Pitched His Tent, in a Valley, by a River of Water (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Modern Road from Aqaba through al-Bad. The modern highway mostly follows the ancient trail. Map from the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia, p. 52] 

1 Nephi 2:6 When he had traveled three days in the wilderness, he pitched his tent, in a valley, by a river of water (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: A Three Day Journey. A map adapted from a general map of the area of the travels of George Potter and Craig Thorsted. (George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1999, p. 58) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection] 

1 Nephi 2:6 When he had traveled three days in the wilderness, he pitched his tent, in a valley, by a river of water (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: The desert stream that runs "continually" toward the Red Sea. [George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1999, p. 62] 

1 Nephi 2:6 Water (Illustration): Old hand-dug water wells average every 18 miles on the Lehi Trail. This one was found in the Tihama of Saudi Arabia. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 109]

1 Nephi 2:7 He built an altar of stones and made an offering (Illustration): Lehi built an altar from stones and made an offering to God. Illustrators: Jerry Thompson and Robert T. Barrett. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Book of Mormon Stories, p. 6]

1 Nephi 2:7 [Lehi] built an altar of stones and made an offering unto the Lord (Illustration): Lehi Building an Altar of Stones in the Valley of Lemuel. Lehi built an altar and "gave thanks unto the Lord." Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 5]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the fountain of the Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: An map showing the major wadi drainages into the Red Sea from the ancient land of Midian. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia, p. 79]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the fountain of the Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: The Fountain of the Red Sea (1 Nephi 2:9), where Wadi al-Afal flows into the Red Sea, about 20 miles south southeast of al-Bad, Saudi Arabia. Photo by Gerald Silver. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi: New Evidence of Lehi and Nephi in Arabia, p. 57]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Larger of Wells of Jethro, al-Bada'a. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 45]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Map showing the location of Maqna (the Waters of Moses) and al=Bad (the Well of Jethro). Adapted from a sketch by Timothy Sedor. (George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1989, p. 58) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: The Path of the Exodus. Adapted (Howard Blum, The Gold of Exodus, 1998, preface) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: George Potter at the twelve natural springs at Maqna. Photo by Richard Wellington. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 46]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Narrow canyon opening up on the shores of the Red Sea, which George Potter and Craig Thorsted came upon while traveling eight miles north of Maqna in search of the Waters of Moses. Photo by George Potter. (George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1989, inside back cover) [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Sketch of the winding 33/4 mile course of the canyon, Tayyib al-Ism (east-west). The exit on the Gulf of Aqaba lies southwest of the point at which one enters the canyon from the upper valley. Sketch courtesy of Timothy Sedor. [George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1989, p. 57] 

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Cross-section of the canyon showing the drop of the stream from the upper end (750 feet) to sea level. Courtesy of George D. Potter. [George D. Potter, "A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 8, Num.1, FARMS, 1989, p. 63] 

1 Nephi 2:9 The waters of the river emptied into the . . . Red Sea . . . this river, continually running (Illustration): Cross Section Model of the Valley Lemuel. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 69]

1 Nephi 2:9 Fountain of the Red Sea (Illustration): View at sunset across the Gulf of Aqaba near the border of modern Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Lehi refers to such an area in the record as the "fountain of the Red Sea." [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 28-29]

1 Nephi 2:10 This valley, firm and steadfast, and immovable (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: West most of three groves of date palms found in the upper valley or Waters of Moses. Photo by JS. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 49]

1 Nephi 2:10 This valley, firm and steadfast, and immovable (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: The Canyon of Granite. Three adults walking through the canyon, only half way to cliff face in background. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 80]

1 Nephi 2:10 This valley, firm and steadfast, and immovable (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Sunset in the Lower Canyon, notice the man standing in the canyon floor. Photo by Tim Sedor. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 72]

1 Nephi 2:10 This valley, firm and steadfast, and immovable (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Shoreline ending of the Wadi Tayyib al-Ism. Photo by GW [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 48]

1 Nephi 2:14 Valley of Lemuel (Illustration): The Wadi El Afal may be the Valley of Lemuel. It cuts in a north-south direction from high in the Saudi Arabian mountains down to the Red Sea. Through these meandering curves filled with sand and gravel, Nephi and his brothers probably made their journeys back to Jerusalem. Further down the wadi, high mountains are on either side. It could have been from them that Nephi was caught away by the Spirit. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 66]

1 Nephi 2:14 Valley of Lemuel (Illustration): We felt a special spirit near the oasis at Al Beda. The ancient ruins there are still called Jethro, for this reportedly was the home of Moses' father-in-law. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 75] 

1 Nephi 2:14 The Valley of Lemuel (Illustration): Kingdom of Lihyan (Lehi-an) 500 B.C. - 200 B.C. and "Lihyanite Territory." These illustrations show that the area where Lehi first camped was associated with the Land of Midian (the land where Jethro lived) and the name of Lehi. [Hope A. and Lynn M. Hilton, "The Lihyanites," p. 7]

1 Nephi 2:15 Dwelt in a tent (Illustration): A tent used by King Sennacherib near Lachish, Palestine, is supported by poles and cords. The upper canopy was designed to catch the cooling breezes, and imitates those built in Assyrian houses. Relief from Nineveh, 704-681 B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1534]

1 Nephi 2:15 Dwelt in a tent (Illustration): Typical bedouin tent made of goats' hair. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1534]

1 Nephi 2:15 Dwelt in a tent (Illustration): The typical Arab tent, or beit shaar (house of hair) has not changed substantially with time. It provides cooling shade in summer and, with the sides down, warmth in winter. The tents are traditionally made of camel or goats hair that is spun and then woven into a fabric as thick as a carpet. Lehi's tents may have been like this, or they may have been more elaborate, with geometric panels like those we found on a tent in Cairo. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 70] 

Nephi 3-5 (Story of Nephi obtaining the brass plates) [Illustration]: "A Chiastic Analysis of 1 Nephi 3-5" [Noel B. Reynolds, "The Political Dimension in Nephi's Small Plates," FARMS, 1987, p. 14]

1 Nephi 3:3 Brass (Illustration): The Copper Scrolls. [Hugh Nibley, Since Cumorah, p. 246]

1 Nephi 3:3 Plates of brass (Illustration): Gold Tablets from Palace of Darius. One of the gold tablets from the Palace of Darius discovered in Iran in 1933. They date from about 500 B.C.--near the time of Nephi. The Empire of Darius included Nephi's homeland. [Milton Hunter and Stuart Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, p. 101

1 Nephi 3:3 Plates of brass (Illustration): Cast brass plates on display in the National Museum, Sana'a dating to about A.D. 400. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 9]

1 Nephi 3:3 Plates of Brass (Illustration): Records of Darius in solid gold and silver bearing an inscription in three languages--Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian. The plates date from about 518-515 B.C. and were found at Persepolis, Iran. By permission of The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. [Franklin S. Harris, Jr., The Book of Mormon Message and Evidences, p. 4]

1 Nephi 3:7 I will go and do the things which the Lord hath commanded (Illustration): Nephi Returning for the Plates of Brass. "I will go and do the things which the Lord hath commanded." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 9]

Geographical Theory Map : 1 Nephi 3:9 Nephi Goes Up to Jerusalem After the Plates of Laban

1 Nephi 3:9 The land of Jerusalem (Illustration): The "land of Jerusalem" took in a much larger area than the city Jerusalem, including this place a few miles to the south at Bethlehem. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 14]

1 Nephi 3:16 Let us go down to the land of our father's inheritance (Illustration): "The Land of Israel 600 B.C." [Jeffrey R. Chadwick, "Lehi's House at Jerusalem and the Land of His Inheritance," 1999, illustrative map in an unpublished 1993 paper] 

1 Nephi 3:23 After we had gathered these things [gold and silver and precious things] we went up again unto the house of Laban (Illustration): Nephi and His Brothers at the House of Laban. Artist: Ronald Crosby. [Mary Pratt Parrish, The Book of Mormon Story, p. 10]

1 Nephi 3:25 Laban . . . sent his servants to slay us (Illustration): "Laban . . . sent his servants to slay us, that he might obtain our property," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1041]

1 Nephi 3:27 We hid ourselves in the cavity of a rock (Illustration): Cavities in the rock like this one dot the limestone hills and valleys outside the city of Jerusalem. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 18]

1 Nephi 3:29 They smote us with a rod (Illustration): "Laman and Lemuel did speak many hard words unto us . . . and they did smite us even with a rod. And . . . as they smote us with a rod, behold, an angel of the Lord came and stood before them, " [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1043]

1 Nephi 3:29 As they smote us with a rod, behold, an angel of the Lord came (Illustration): Angel Saves Nephi. [Artist: Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 2]

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Illustration): Proposed locations for Mt. Sinai. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 59]

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Illustration): Theory of Visits to Mt. Sinai in Midian [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 60]

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Illustration): A Latter-Day Saint View of Moses (What the Bible Teaches; What the Latter-day Revelation Adds) [Todd B. Parker and Robert Norman, "Moses, Witness of Jesus Christ," in The Ensign, April 1998, pp. 26-28]

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Photograph taken from the base of St. Catherine's, which is to the left, and not in site of the wadi of the Rest (in the distance), where according to one theory Israel supposedly camped. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Susan Potter at the base of the St. Catherine's, one proposed candidate for Mount Sinai. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: George Potter at the Arabian site which has been proposed as a candidate for Mount Sinai. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Well at al-Bada'a which locals claim is the well of Jethro. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: One of eleven boundary markers next to the Arabian candidate for Mount Sinai (the tribe of Levi, the priests, had no separate camp. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Remains of one of the marble columns at the Arabian candidate for Mount Sinai. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Two stone pathways lead to "Altar of Moses" at the Arabian Sinai site. The entire monument is made of unhewn stones. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:2 Moses (Mt. Sinai-Horeb) [Illustration]: Calf carvings that surround the entire structure alleged to be the "golden calf" altar at the Arabian Sinai site. [George Potter, "Where Is The Real Mount Sinai," E-published by Nephi Project, February 2002 at http://www.nephiproject.com/sinai.htm] 

1 Nephi 4:5 I, Nephi, crept into the city [by night] (Illustration): Nighttime exposure of the Kidron Valley on the east and south of the city Jerusalem. The brothers could have come up this way and easily secreted themselves in this ravine outside the walls of the city while Nephi crept in to find Laban. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 20-21]

1 Nephi 4:9 I beheld his [Laban's] sword (Illustration): Ancient Steel Daggers. [John Welch and Morgan Ashton, "Ancient Steel Daggers," in Charting the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., Packet 1. 

1 Nephi 4:10 I was constrained by the spirit that I should kill Laban (Illustration): "I was constrained by the spirit that I should kill Laban: but I said in my heart: Never at any time have I shed the blood of man. And I shrunk and would that I might not slay him." [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1047]

1 Nephi 4:10 I was constrained by the Spirit that I should kill Laban (Illustration): Nephi Slaying Laban. Nephi was "constrained by the Spirit" to kill Laban. Artist: Scott Snow. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 12]

1 Nephi 4:12 Slay him for the Lord hath delivered him into thy hands (Illustration): Nephi Slays Laban. [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, pp. 3,4]

1 Nephi 4:12 The Spirit said unto me again: Slay him, for the Lord hath delivered him into thy hands (Illustration): Laban Slain By His Own Sword. Artist: Ronald Crosby. [Mary Pratt Parrish, The Book of Mormon Story, p. 6]

1 Nephi 4:13 It is better that one man should perish than that a nation should dwindle and perish in unbelief (Illustration): Chart: "When Is It Better for One Man to Perish Than an Entire Nation?" [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #115]

1 Nephi 4:28 When Laman saw me he was exceedingly frightened, and also Lemuel and Sam (Illustration): "Laman, Lemuel, and Sam were deeply frightened when they saw Nephi suddenly appear before them dressed in the armour of Laban and accompanied by Laban's servant." [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1051]

1 Nephi 4:38 We took the plates of brass . . . and journeyed unto the tent of our father (Illustration): Nephi Returns with Plates [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 4:38 Nephi Journeys to the Tent of His Father (Year 001)

1 Nephi 5:2 She had supposed that we had perished in the wilderness (Illustration): Northern border of Arabia, the red sands of the great Nafud desert and the barren plains of the former Midian region. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 10] 

1 Nephi 5:8 Now I know of a surety (Illustration): Sariah's Epiphany. Artist: John S. Lepinski. [Camille Fronk, "Desert Epiphany: Sariah & the Women in 1 Nephi," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 9, Num. 2, 2000, FARMS, p. 4] [See the commentary on 1 Nephi 5:2] 

1 Nephi 5:10 He did search [the records] from the beginning (Illustration): "Lehi took the records which were engraven upon the plates of brass, and he did search them from the beginning," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1062]

1 Nephi 5:10 Lehi took the records which were engraven upon the plates of brass, and did search them from the beginning (Illustration): Lehi Studying the Plates of Brass. Lehi "found upon the plates of brass a genealogy of his fathers; wherefore he knew that he was a descendant of Joseph." Artist: Clark Kelley Price [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 16]

1 Nephi 5:10 Lehi took the records which were engraven upon the plates of brass, and he did search them from the beginning (Illustration): Lehi Studying the Plates of Brass. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, January 1988, p. 28]

1 Nephi 5:11 We beheld that they did contain the five books of Moses (Illustration): Moses [Clark Kelley Price, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

1 Nephi 5:11 Adam and Eve (Illustration): Adam and Eve. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #101] 

1 Nephi 5:14 Joseph . . . who was sold into Egypt (Illustration): Joseph Is Sold by His Brothers. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #109]

1 Nephi 5:14 Plates of brass (Illustration): A chart compiled by Franklin S. Harris, Jr. lists 63 instances where ancient Old World writing has been found on metal plates. The following is documented: Object and Material; Civilization, Place; Language and Script; Time; and Remarks. The accompanying map above, illustrated by Charles J. Jacobsen, shows the discovery locations for the 63 records. [Book of Mormon Charts, pp. 12-13, compiled from The Instructor Magazine by M. Ross Richards and Marie Curtis Richards] 

1 Nephi 5:14 Plates of brass (Illustration): Page 2 A chart compiled by Franklin S. Harris, Jr. lists 63 instances where ancient Old World writing has been found on metal plates. The following is documented: Object and Material; Civilization, Place; Language and Script; Time; and Remarks. The accompanying map above, illustrated by Charles J. Jacobsen, shows the discovery locations for the 63 records. [Book of Mormon Charts, pp. 12-13, compiled from The InstructorMagazine by M. Ross Richards and Marie Curtis Richards] 

1 Nephi 7:1 [Lehi's] sons should take [Ishmael's] daughters to wife, that they might raise up seed unto the Lord in the land of promise (Illustration): Untitled. The daughters of Ishmael. Artist: Ted Henninger. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 44]

Geographical Theory Map : 1 Nephi 7:1-4 Nephi Goes up for Ishmael & His Family (Year 001)

1 Nephi 7:16 They did bind me with cords (Illustration): "My brethren were angry with me . . . and they did bind me with cords, for they sought to take away my life, that they might leave me in the wilderness to be devoured by wild beasts," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1070]

1 Nephi 7:16 They sought to take away my life (Illustration): Brothers Try to Slay Nephi [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 4]

1 Nephi 7:16 That they might leave me in the wilderness to be devoured by wild beasts (Illustration): Inscriptions of palm trees, camels and lions (Mount Yatib, NW Arabia, Thamudic period first millennium BC). An Introduction to Saudi Arabian Antiquities, Dept. of Antiquities and Museums, Ministry of Education, 1975, p. 120). [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 15] 

1 Nephi 7:22 An offering unto the Lord (Altars) (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig. 7.2 George Potter next to the altar that is lightly over waist high. Photograph taken by Bruce Santucci in Wadi Tayyib al-Ism (proposed Valley of Lemuel). [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 137] 

1 Nephi 7:22 An offering unto the Lord (Altars) (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig 7.3 Altar position on the top of the hill immediately above the circle next to the east grove. (Bruce Santucci sitting next to the altar). Photograph taken by George Potter in Wadi Tayyib al-Ism (proposed Valley of Lemuel). [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 137] 

1 Nephi 7:22 An offering unto the Lord (Altars) (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Second pile of stones atop a mountain that appears to have been an altar. Photo by George Potter in Wadi Tayyib al-Ism (proposed Valley of Lemuel). [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 139] 

1 Nephi 8:1 All manner of seeds (Illustration): We found in the market at Nizwa, Oman, wheat, barley, asfar, sugar, pepper, and other condiments. Foodstuffs such as these might have been the type of stores collected by Lehi's party as they prepared for their journey to the promised land. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 58]

1 Nephi 8:2 My father [Lehi] spake to us (Illustration): In Stela 5, the reader should note the hat which the character corresponding to Lehi wears. This hat which he wears is very uncommon to the general forms of headwear seen in the remnants of Mesoamerican antiquity. While we must concede that a hat like this can easily resemble caps worn in various cultures around the world, it is also quite similar to the standard mitre worn by Israelite priests, which I illustrate with the following 19th century engravings, based on factual data concerning the dress modes and religion of ancient Israel: ---Consecration of Aaron According to Israelite Custom--- [Ammon O'Brien, Seeing beyond Today with Ancient America, p. 183]

1 Nephi 8:2 Behold, I have dreamed a dream (Illustration): Lehi's Dream [Steven Lloyd Neal, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 5]

1 Nephi 8:2 Behold, I have dreamed a dream; or, in other words, I have seen a vision (Illustration): Lehi saw many people in his dream. . . . Illustrators: Jerry Thompson and Robert T. Barrett. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Book of Mormon Stories, p. 20]

1 Nephi 8:2 I dreamed a dream (Lehi's Dream) [Illustration]: Artist Conception of Lehi's Dream / Lehi's Dream Explained (1 Nephi 8, 11, 12, 15). [John D. Hawkes, Book of Mormon Digest, pp. 18-19]

1 Nephi 8:2 Behold, I have dreamed a dream (Illustration): Lehi's Dream. An Illustration of Lehi's dream. Artist: Greg K. Olsen. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 21]

1 Nephi 8:2 I have seen a vision (Illustration): Features of the Izapa Tree-of-Life Scene. Drawing reproduction by the writer. For a brief correlation of some of the more important figures: (1) Lehi with the jawbone nameglyph, (2) Sariah with a symbolic headdress, (3) Nephi writing on a book with a stylus, (4) Sam holding an umbrella (11) over the figure of Nephi as a symbol of rulership, (5) Laman with his back to the tree of life and with smoke from the altar blinding him, (6) Lemuel with his back to the tree of life, (14) the rod of iron leading to the tree of life, (15) the Tree of Life with its white fruit, (17 & 18) Angels or cherubim guarding the tree, (19) the heavens, (23) filthy water with the head a little way off. [Wells Jakeman, Stela 5, Izapa, plate 5] 

1 Nephi 8:2 I have seen a vision (Stela 5--Chiastic Structure) [Illustration]: Example 5: The Tree of Life Stone at Izapa (Stela 5) [Joseph L. Allen, "Hebrew Chiasmus," in Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. 1/1, Spring 1998, p. 3]

1 Nephi 8:2 I have seen a vision (Maya Tree of Life Chiastic Structure) [Illustration]: Example 4: The Tablet of the Cross [Joseph L. Allen, "Hebrew Chiasmus," in Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. 1/1, Spring 1998, p. 3]

1 Nephi 8:2 I have seen a vision (Illustration): Beautiful wood carving of Stela 5, a possible representation of the dream of the Tree of Life, discovered with 21 other stelae and 19 altars at Izapa in southern Mexico. In one of the earliest studies of Stela 5, an archaeologist, M. Wells Jakeman, found 22 correspondences and 114 points of agreement between the Izapa carving and the written accounts of Nephi and Lehi's Tree of Life visions. [Scot F. Proctor and Maurine J. Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 31]

1 Nephi 8:4 A dark and dreary wilderness (Potter) [Illustration]: Lehi traveled for the space of many hours in a dark and dreary waste. Midian is one of the bleakest terrains in Arabia, known as Arabia Petrae to the Romans (Rocky Arabia). This picture is looking back from the oasis at the entrance to wadi Tayyib al-Ism. Quite a stark contrast. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, pp. 68-69, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 8:4 A dark and dreary wilderness (Potter) [Illustration]: A normally hardy acacia tree lies dead in the wadi. Wadi Tayyib al-Ism is barren for almost its entire length. By this point, just before the "spacious field" oasis, Lehi would doubtless have been very anxious for the welfare of his family. His dream mirrors this as he offers a prayer in desperation. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 3, p. 12, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 8:9 I beheld a large and spacious field (Potter) [Illustration]: Entering the upper valley of Wadi Tayyib al-Ism from the east, its only entrance. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 3, p. 12, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 8:9 I beheld a large and spacious field (Potter) [Illustration]: After offering his prayer Lehi beheld a large and spacious field. Looking down wadi Tayyib al-Ism one can catch first site of the first of the palm groves in the distance. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, pp. 68-69, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 8:10 Tree of Life (Illustration): Ancient Representations of the Tree of Life. From a Maya monument (the so-called Tablet of the Cross, Palenque) in the National Museum of Archaeology, Mexico; [Wells Jakeman, Stela 5, Izapa, pp. 3, 7]

1 Nephi 8:10 Tree of Life (Illustration): Ancient Representations of the Tree of Life. From an Assyrian monument in the British Museum. [Wells Jakeman, Stela 5, Izapa, pp. 3, 7]

1 Nephi 8:14 I beheld your mother Sariah (Illustration): Horned-and-Feathered Crowns. Left: horned and feathered crown worn by figure 2 of the Izapa carving; right: the ancient Egyptian horned and feathered crown signifying 'queen' or 'princess' (an example of the crown worn by the young wife of King Tutankhamen, in a scene on the back of a throne found in the latter's tomb). [Wells Jakeman, Stela 5, Izapa, Plate 7]

1 Nephi 8:20 A strait and narrow path (Potter) [Illustration]: Level footpath runs along the river the entire length of the canyon. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 3, p. 17, Unpublished] 

1 Nephi 8:23 An exceedingly great mist of darkness (Potter) [Illustration]: The sun sets over Egypt in the distance. The combination of warm water in the Red Sea and cool air from the mountains can make thick fogs, which only affect the coast, reminiscent of Lehi's mist of darkness which blinded people who were lost in the gulf. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, pp. 68-69, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 8:23 A mist of darkness (Illustration): The brightness of the afternoon sun is nearly obliterated during this sandstorm in the Arabian peninsula near the borders of the Red Sea. Driven by winds in excess of seventy miles an hour, sand particles cut with abrasive power any object or life form they touch. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 36-37]

1 Nephi 8:24 I Beheld others pressing forward, and they came forth and caught hold of the end of the rod of iron (Illustration): The Rod of Iron and the Tree of Life. Artist: Greg Olsen [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, March 1995, p. 14]

1 Nephi 8:26 A great and spacious building; and it stood as it were in the air, high above the earth (Illustration): A great and spacious building in the days of Lehi may have been like the palace of Bilquis, the Queen of Sheba, with towers reaching to a great height and windows throughout. Located in Marib, Yemen, this palace was the crossroads of the ancient capital of Sheba, one of the wealthiest cities in Arabia in Lehi's time. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 24-25] 

1 Nephi 8:26 A great and spacious building (Potter) [Illustration]: Canyon walls near opening, George standing in the lighted area of the canyon floor. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 3, p. 18, Unpublished] 

1 Nephi 8:27 And they were in the attitude of mocking and pointing their fingers towards those who had come at and were partaking of the fruit (Illustration): Details of Lehi's Dream. Artist: Greg Olsen. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, March 1995, pp. 14, 12-13]

1 Nephi 10:7 A prophet [John] who should come before the Messiah (Illustration): John Preaching in the Wilderness. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #207]

1 Nephi 10:8 The Wilderness (Illustration): Wilderness of Judea, near the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. The wilderness of Judea covers an area approximately thirty miles long by ten miles wide. The Negev dessert surrounds it on the south, the hill country of Ephraim on the north, The Dead Sea on the east, and the hill country of Judah on the west. This wilderness receives very little rainfall, providing meager forage for flocks and very little water for Bedouin who still pitch their tents there. John the Baptist probably taught the gospel in this wilderness, and Jesus fasted here for forty days. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 63]

1 Nephi 10:9 He [John the Baptist] shall baptize the Messiah with water (Illustration): Christ's Baptism. As Lehi prophesied, the Messiah (Jesus) would be baptized by a prophet (John the Baptist) "who should come before the Messiah, to prepare the way of the Lord." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 26]

1 Nephi 10:9 He [John the Baptist] shall baptize the Messiah with water (Illustration): John the Baptist Baptizing Jesus. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #208]

1 Nephi 10:18 The way is prepared from the foundation of the world, if it so be that they repent and come unto him (Chiasm) [Illustration]: Chiasm of First Nephi [Raymond C. Treat, "Chiasms in the Book of Mormon," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol. 1, pp. 64-66]

1 Nephi 11:1 I was caught away . . . into an exceedingly high mountain (Illustration-Potter): Richard and George at Arabian candidate for mount Sinai, eight miles south of Jabel Al-Lawz. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 1, p. 5, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 11:1 I was caught away . . . into an exceedingly high mountain (Illustration-Potter): The location of Jabel al-Lawz in relation to Wadi Tayyib al-Ism. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering Nephi's Trail, Chapter 1, p. 6, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 11:3 I [Nephi] desire to behold the things which my father saw (Illustration): Nephi's Vision [Clark Kelley Price, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

1 Nephi 11:3 I desire to behold the things which my father saw (Illustration): A Comparison of Lehi's Dream and Nephi's Vision. [John Welch and Morgan Ashton, "A Comparison of Lehi's Dream and Nephi's Vision," in Charting the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., Packet 1. [See the commentary on 1 Nephi 14:29]

1 Nephi 11:3 I [Nephi] desire to behold the things which my father saw (Illustration): Nephi's Vision. While Nephi pondered the words of his father, a vision was opened to him. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 34]

1 Nephi 11:18 The virgin whom thou seest is the mother of the Son of God (Illustration): Nephi Sees the Virgin [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 7]

1 Nephi 11:20 I looked and beheld the virgin again, bearing a child in her arms (Illustration): Nephi Sees the Birth of Christ [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 7]

1 Nephi 11:20 And I looked and beheld the virgin again, bearing a child in her arms (Illustration): Nephi's Vision of Mary. Artist: Judith Mehr. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, December 1997, inside front cover]

1 Nephi 11:20 I looked and beheld the virgin again, bearing a child in her arms (Illustration): "He Shall Bring Forth a Son." Mary holds the baby Jesus Artist: Liz Lemon Swindle. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 30]

1 Nephi 11:25 The tree of life (Illustration): Torah-shrine and symbolic tree in the ancient synagogue of Dura Europos. [Hugh W. Nibley, Since Cumorah, p. 190]

1 Nephi 11:27 I looked and beheld the Redeemer of the world (Illustration): Christ [Gary Kapp, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 2]

1 Nephi 12:6 I saw the heavens open, and the Lamb of God descending out of heaven (Illustration): "Behold I Am Jesus Christ." Nephi saw in vision that the resurrected Lord would appear on the American continent. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 32]

1 Nephi 13:12 He went forth upon the many waters, even to the seed of my brethren (Illustration): Map of Columbus' First Voyage to the New World. [Arnold K. Garr, Christopher Columbus, A Latter-Day Saint Perspective, p. 40]

1 Nephi 13:12 I beheld the Spirit of God, that it came down and wrought upon the man (Illustration): "Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)" [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1115]

1 Nephi 13:12 [The Spirit of God] wrought upon the man; and he went forth upon the many waters, even unto the seed of my brethren (Illustration): Landing of Columbus at the Island of Guanahani, West Indies, 12 October 1492. Artist: John Vanderlyn, 1847. Courtesy of the Architect of the Capitol, National Graphics Center. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, October 1992, front cover]

1 Nephi 13:14 [The seed of my brethren] were scattered before the Gentiles and were smitten ( Illustration): "I beheld the wrath of God, that it was upon the seed of my brethren: and they were scattered before the Gentiles and were smitten," by A&OR. [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1105]

1 Nephi 13:15 [The Gentiles] did prosper (Illustration): "And I beheld the spirit of the Lord, that it was upon the gentiles, and they did prosper and obtain the land," by A&OR [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1107] 

1 Nephi 13:37 Blessed are they who shall seek to bring forth my Zion at that day (Illustration): That We May Be Redeemed. Artist: Harold I. Hopkinson. In August 1877, the Founding fathers of the United States appeared to Wilford Woodruff in the St. George Temple, asking that their temple work be done. President Woodruff reports that he "straightway went into the baptismal font and called upon Brother McAllister to baptize me for the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and fifty other eminent men." [L.D.S., The Ensign, September 1988, inside front cover]

1 Nephi 13:37 Blessed are they who shall seek to bring forth my Zion at that day (Illustration): Benito Juarez (1806-1872). Drawing by Cliff Dunston. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 95]

1 Nephi 14:29 I bear record that I saw the things which my father saw (Illustration): A Comparison of Lehi's Dream and Nephi's Vision. [John Welch and Morgan Ashton, "A Comparison of Lehi's Dream and Nephi's Vision," in Charting the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., Packet 1.

1 Nephi 15:18 Which covenant the Lord made to our father Abraham (Illustration): Abraham on the Plains of Mamre. Artist: Harry Anderson. [S. Michael Wilcox, "The Abrahamic Covenant," in The Ensign, January 1998, p. 43]

1 Nephi 16:7 I Nephi . . . and also, my brethren took of the daughters of Ishmael to wife (Illustration): Near Kin-Marriages of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 71]

1 Nephi 16:8 I, Nephi, had been blessed by the Lord exceedingly (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: A hiding place from the wind, and the covert from the tempest . . . a river of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. (Isaiah 32:1-2). Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 64] 

1 Nephi 16:10 A round ball of curious workmanship (Illustration): Liahona depiction with crossed pointers indicating "not in service." [Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Fall 1994, p. 1]

1 Nephi 16:10 He [Lehi] beheld upon the ground a round ball of curious workmanship (Illustration): The Liahona. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #302]

1 Nephi 16:10 He beheld upon the ground a round ball of curious workmanship (Illustration): Lehi and the Liahona. Artist: Ronald Bergen. Painted for the Second International Art Competition, this painting by Ronald Bergen of Tempe, Arizona, illustrates Lehi's finding the Liahona. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, August 1994, inside back cover]

1 Nephi 16:10 He [Lehi] beheld . . . a round ball of curious workmanship (Illustration): Lehi. Artist: Stuart Heimdal. [Paul R. Cheesman, Great Leaders of the Book of Mormon, p. 13]

1 Nephi 16:10 The one pointed the way whither we should go into the wilderness (Illustration): The Three Ancient Ports of Southern Arabia: Aden, Cana, and Moscha. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 88]

1 Nephi 16:10 The one pointged tehway whither w should go into thewildlrness (Illustration): The three aNcient Ports of Southern Arabia: Adan, Cana, and Moscha. (George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Tehi-Nehi Trial. P 88+ 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: A Cool Campsite During the Hot Season. The Upper Valley with it's oases of date palms and springs. Located in Wadi Tayyib al-Ism (proposed Valley of Lemuel). Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 88] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: A Dry and Safe Rainy Season Campsite. Ruins of a long-term camp elevated above the wadi floor. Stone circles and circle with palm fronds are corrals next to the camp. Located in Wadi Tayyib al-Ism (proposed Valley of Lemuel). Photo by Tim Sedor. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 113] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Illustration): Typical Bedouin stone storage box. This one found approximately ten miles from wadi Tayyib al-Ism. Photo by Chris Hamilton. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 117] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Richard Wellington drinking from what we believe is the River of Laman. Photo by Ed Benson. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 119] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig. 6.6 Dates are the seeds of the seeds of the date palm. They hang in clusters given the appearance that they are seeds. Photo by George Potter. Fig. 6.7 Dates still in the tree of the middles grove. Photograph taken at the end of January. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 122] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig. 6.8 The Hyphaene thebaica, found growing in the canyon. Bedouins peel the date before eating. Photo by George Potter. Fig. 6.9 Giant dates still uncollected months after the harvest season. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 123] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig. 6.10 The bush of the Teen Berry, found in the canyon along the river bank. Photo by George Potter. Fig. 6.11 Fruit of the vine Cucumis prophetarum.. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 124] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Fig. 6.12 Grain growing in the Canyon. Photo by George Potter. Fig. 6.13 Grain collected and separated in about ten minutes. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Potter Theory) [Illustration]: Salt deposits on the rock in the river bed. The highest deposit is 11 inches above the current water line. Photo by Richard Wellington. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 55] 

1 Nephi 16:11 We did gather . . . all the remainder of our provisions which the Lord had given us (Illustration): Camels in the Wadi Tayyib al-Ism. Photo by George Potter. [George Potter with Richard Wellington, Following the Words of Nephi: Part One: Discovering the Valley of Lemuel, Unpublished Manuscript, 1999, p. 31] 

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 16:9-13 Lehi Travels to Shazer & "Broken Bow" (Year 005) 

1 Nephi 16:13 South-southeast (Illustration): A south-southeast direction would be within an arc on either side of south-southeast. [Keith Christensen, The Unknown Witness, p. 72, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 16:13 South-southeast (Illustration): Illustration of the direction of south-southeast superimposed on the Red Sea. [Keith Christensen, The Unknown Witness, p. 73, Unpublished]

1 Nephi 16:13 A south-southeast direction (Frankincense Trail) [Illustration]: The Arabian peninsula, including incense trade routes and major centers. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 6]

1 Nephi 16:13 A south-southeast direction (Frankincense Trail) [Illustration]: The Frankincense Trails: The ancient caravan route that is known as the frankincense trail follows almost exactly the theoretical trail constructed from the account recorded in the Book of Mormon. The much traveled trail begins at the coast of modern Oman. From there it goes from ancient waterhole to waterhole throughout the Middle East. We should note that the word trail does not refer to a well-defined, narrow path or roadway, but to a more general route that followed a valley or canyon. The width of the route varied with the geography, ranging from a half mile to up to fifty miles wide at one point. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 22-23]

1 Nephi 16:13 We traveled for the space of four days, nearly a south-southeast direction (Illustration) [Hedengren Theory]: U.S. Army Map K502XNH3612, 1961 Grid Lines 10 kilometers (about 6 miles). Contour Intervals 100 meters. An X marks the approximate area of the mouth of Wadi an Nuwaybi. [Paul Hedengren, The Land of Lehi: Further Evidence for the Book of Mormon, p. 22]

1 Nephi 16:13 We traveled for the space of four days (Illustration-Potter Theory): The town of Midian (al-Bada'a), home of Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, would have been the first town the family of Lehi would have encountered after leaving the Valley of Lemuel (Tayyib al-Ism). It was a major halt on the trail that led from Egypt to southern Arabia. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 104]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name of the place Shazer (Illustration-Potter Theory): Map #1 showing the double listing of the names Seger and Schajar. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 102]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name of the place Shazer (Illustration-Potter Theory): Map #2 The Halt Called Segir -- Shazer. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 103]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name of the place Shazer (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Figure 9-1 shows a dotted line for the ancient caravan trail (now a modern highway) between al-Muwaylah, the Book of Mormon "Shazer" and al-Wadjh. Note there are at least 23 ancient ruins, mostly villages, marked along this section of the old trail. {Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton. Discovereing Lehi, p.106]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name ofl the place Shazer (Hilton Theory) [Illustration}: Figure 9-4, One of the ancient trtae routeas in Arabia. this trail runs along thebeach of theRed Sea, all theway from aynima inthe lnorth to the tip of theperninsula in the south. On the map, the Hilton's p;roposed locationof Sshazer--al-Muwaylah would be just north of Duba. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton. Doscovering Lehi, p. 113]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name of the place Shazer (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: The Frankincense Trials.This map shows the Hilton's proopossd location for Shazer--theWadi al Azlan. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In search of Lehi's Trail.p 22-23]

1 Nephi 16:13 We did call the name of the place Shazer ["Trees"] (Illustration- Potter Theory): Wadi Al-Gharr has 18 miles of cultivation running through it, including thousands of date palms. There is simply no other place in the northwest corner of Arabia that the expression, "Shazer," which means "a valley with trees," more aptly describes. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 104]

1 Nephi 16:14 We did . . . go forth into the wilderness to slay food for our families (Illustration-Potter Theory): The mountain range immediately east of Al Gharr (Shazer) provides good hunting to this day. The local residents have told us that the best ibex hunting in Midian is found in these mountains. this was an excellent place for the men to go and hunt. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 104]

1 Nephi 16:14 We did go forth . . . keeping in the most fertile parts of the wildereness, which were in the borders near the Red Sea (Hilton & Potter Theories Compared) [Illustration]: The Frankincense Trails. This map shows the Hilton's proposed route along the shore of the Red Sea as opposed to the more eastern route on the eastern side of the Hijaz mountains. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 22-23]

1 Nephi 16:14 And we did go forth again . . . in the most fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration-Potter Theory): Halts on the Frankincense Trail. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 122]

1 Nephi 16:14 And we did go forth again . . . in the most fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration-Potter Theory): Map showing the Trail Taken by the Family through Arabia. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 260]

1 Nephi 16:14 And we did go forth again . . . in the most fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration-Potter Theory): Fields and palm groves line the route for many miles leading up to Medina. Amid the desert a line of farms stretches like a string across the barren terrain. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 124]

1 Nephi 16:14 Keeping in the most fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration-Potter Theory): After traveling down wadi Jizl the family would have reached Dedan. A beautiful and fertile town in one of the most picturesque settings in Saudi Arabia. The ruins of the old town of Dedan are just a short way from the modern town of al Ula. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 124]

1 Nephi 16:15 Slaying food by the way with our bows and our arrows (Illustration): Ashurbanipal's servants stringing bows for hunting. Nineveh. c. 650 B.C. Photograph of a wall relief. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 114]

1 Nephi 16:15 Slaying food by the way, with our bows and our arrows and our stones and our slings (Illustration): Nephi Hunting [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

1 Nephi 16:15-16 And it came to pass that we did travel for the space of many days . . . in the more fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration--Potter Theory): The More Fertile Parts. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 140]

1 Nephi 16:15-16 And it came to pass that we did travel for the space of many days . . . in the more fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration--Potter Theory): By the time the family reached Turbah the terrain had changed. Fertile rest stops were much fewer and further apart. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 141]

1 Nephi 16:15-16 And it came to pass that we did travel for the space of many days . . . in the more fertile parts of the wilderness (Illustration--Potter Theory): Map Showing the Trail Taken by the Family through Arabia. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 260]

1 Nephi 16:18 As I, Nephi, went forth to slay food, behold, I did break my bow (Illustration): Nephi's Broken bow. "As I, Nephi, went forth to slay food, behold, I did break my bow." Artist: Michael Jarvis Nelson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 47]

1 Nephi 16:18 I did break my bow (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: The Frankincense Trails. This map shows the Hilton's proposed location for where Lehi's group "pitched their tent for a time" and where Nephi "did break [his] bow." [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, pp. 22-23]

1 Nephi 16:23 I, Nephi, did make out of wood a bow (Illustration): Neil Holland demonstrates the bow he made from Atim wood (Olive) that grows above 6,000 feet up in the mountains. Atim was favored by the locals for making the best bows. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 141]

1 Nephi 16:23 A sling and with stones (Illustration): Assyrian slingers . . . from Sennacherib's palace at Nineveh c. 690 B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 115]

1 Nephi 16:23 A sling and with stones (Illustration): Sling stones found at the main gate of Lachish. Probably used either during Sennacherib's siege of the city in 701 BC, or during the Babylonian attack c. 588/7 B.C. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 115]

1 Nephi 16:30 I, Nephi, did go forth up into the top of the mountain (Illustration): Proposed routing of Lehi's trail, following one of the ancient frankincense trails from the Red Sea coast up the Sha'ar Ascent to Abha, Khamis Mushait and Nahom. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 131]

1 Nephi 16:30 I, Nephi Did Go Forth up into the Top of the Mountain (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Figure 10-4. Proposed reconstruction of the Lehi-Nephi trail along one of the ancient frankincense roads from the Red Sea to Bountiful. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 133] 

1 Nephi 16:31 I did slay wild beasts (Illustration): Nephi and his brothers depended on wild game for a large part of their food supply. Gazelles, ibex, wild asses, and other game as recorded to have abounded throughout the wilderness area that their party passed through. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 82]

1 Nephi 16:31 I did slay wild beasts, insomuch that I did obtain food for our families (Illustration): Nephi with Meat [Clark Kelley Price, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 16:33-39 Travel to Nahom (Year 005-006)

1 Nephi 16:33 And it came to pass that we did again take our journey, traveling nearly the same course as in the beginning (Illustration--Potter Theory): Major Trails in Ancient Yemen. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 160]

1 Nephi 16:33 And it came to pass that we did again take our journey, traveling nearly the same course as in the beginning (Illustration--

Potter Theory): The trail leading south from Najran to Nahom. The edge of the Rub'al Khali extends right down to the trail here. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 162]

1 Nephi 16:34 Ishmael died and was buried in the place which was called Nahom (Aston Theory) [Illustration]: Figure 3. Map of southeastern Arabia showing the final stages of Lehi's journey and all locations referred to in the text. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 11]

1 Nephi 16:34 Ishmael died and was buried in the place which was called Nahom (Illustration): Niebuhr's 1763 map of Yemen showing the tribal district of NEHHM northeast of Sana'a. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 15] 

1 Nephi 16:34 Ishmael died and was buried in the place which was called Nahom (Illustration): 3,000-year old city of Baraqish on the incense trails of Sheba with two ancient tombs in the foreground. The modern name of this region is Nehem, named after the Yemini tribe who have dwelt in the area for at least a thousand years. It is hard not to observe the similarities between this place and the Nahom mentioned in Nephi's account . . . Thousands of ancient graves have been discovered in this area, making this probably the largest burial site in Arabia. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 38]

1 Nephi 16:34 Ishmael died and was buried in the place which was called Nahom (Illustration): The mountains of Nehem overlook the wide plain of Wadi Jawf in Yemen. While encamped in this area, Ishmael died and was buried. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 69] 

1 Nephi 16:34 Ishmael died and was buried in the place which was called Nahom (Illustration): Some of the thousands of rock burial tombs lining the low hills of Ruwaik and 'Alam Abyadh in the desert northeast of Marib. Rarely viewed by outsiders, they are similar in style and age to the Nehem tombs. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 70]

1 Nephi 16:34 Nahom (Illustration--Potter Theory): Map Showing the Trail Taken by the Family through Arabia. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 260] 

1 Nephi 16:34 Nahom (Illustration--Potter Theory): The Extent of Nhm in 19th and 20th Century Literature. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 162] 

1 Nephi 16:34 Nahom (Illustration--Potter Theory): Major Trails in Ancient Yemen. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 162] 

1 Nephi 16:35 We Have Suffered Much Affliction, Hunger, Thirst and Fatigue (Illustration--Potter Theory): The towering dunes of the Rub' al Khali, or Empty Quarter, sap the strength of the traveler who faces the full force of the sun. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 162] 

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration): Various Theories Proposed of Lehi's Trail. Map 6. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 78]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Hilton Theory) [Illustration]: Figure 10-4. Proposed reconstruction of the Lehi-Nephi trail along one of the ancient frankincense roads from the Red Sea to Bountiful. [Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 133] 

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): The Trail East. Map showing a trail east to Dhofar based on the work of world renowned American archaeologist Juris Zarins. Map from John Noble Wilford, "Ruins in Yemeni Desert Mark Route of Frankincense Trade," New York Times, Tuesday, January 28, 1997. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): The Frankincense Trail from Mashyniqah to Moscha. (Nahom to Bountiful) [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): Taking a rest on the trail east, admiring the scenery! [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): The trail ran east along the flat gravel plain bounded on the north by sand dunes and mountains to the south. The halt of Fasad shows up as merely a dot amongst the dunes on the horizon. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): A computer reconstruction of what the city of "Ubar" would have looked like. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): Numerous ancient trails spread out southeast from "Ubar" to the frankincense groves of the "Adites." [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did again take our journey in the wilderness; and we did travel nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration--Potter Theory): Somewhere between A.D. 300-500 the city at Shisur collapsed into the ground. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 175]

1 Nephi 17:1 Nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration): An illustration of the ramifications of directional shift in Lehi's journey to Bountiful.

1 Nephi 17:1 Nearly eastward from that time forth (Illustration): Table: Latitude of Sites on Nephi's Eastward Journey

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward (Illustration): Map of southeastern Arabia showing the final stages of Lehi's journey and all locations referred to in the text. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 11]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward (Illustration): The barren Qasmar mountains isolate "Bountiful" and prevent coastal access other than through Wadi Sayq. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-67]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward (Illustration): The flood scoured floor of Wadi Sayq leading to the coast at Khor Kharfot. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-67]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward (Illustration): View into the great Empty Quarter of the Arabian Desert. No habitation exists in this forsaken area of a quarter-of-a-million square miles. Lehi's party likely skirted the south end of this area as they made their way across the last 800 miles of the journey to Bountiful. Ancient caravans took from two to three months to cross to the Dhofar region, the area where frankincense trees were indigenous and abundant. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 40-41]

1 Nephi 17:1 We did travel nearly eastward (Illustration): Looking into the ominous, barren canyons of Wadi Sayq (pronounced sike) in modern Oman. The elevation here is over 4,000 feet and within twenty miles will drop to the ocean. In one of these feeder canyons Lehi and his party may have entered the wadi and followed the directions of the Liahona through the main canyon to the ocean. Certainly, viewing this foreboding canyon, they would not have known that lush Bountiful was directly ahead. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 42-43]

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 17:1--18:7 Eastward to Bountiful and the Sea Irreantum (Year 008) (Illustration)

1 Nephi 17:5 We called [it] Bountiful because of its much fruit and also wild honey (Illustration): Date palms produce the probable "fruit" that Nephi wrote of, giving rise to the name Bountiful. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-67] 

1 Nephi 17:5 We called [it] Bountiful because of its much fruit and also wild honey (Illustration): Delicate flowers shoot forth in their beauty at Wadi Sayq. (p. 53) 

1 Nephi 17:5 And we did come to the land which we called Bountiful (Hilton Theory-Illustration): Positions of the Khors (Ports) on the Salalah Plain. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 17:5 We did come to the land which we called Bountiful (Hedengren Theory) [Illustration]: (A) Travel from Nahom to Bountiful. (B) Eastern Oman near Ras al Hadd. [Paul Hedengren, The Land of Lehi: Further Evidence for the Book of Mormon, pp. 31, 32]

1 Nephi 17:5 We called [it] Bountiful (Illustration): Figures 14, 15, and 16. 3-D maps of Wadi Sayq showing the valley leading from the desert interior to the coast. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 50-51]

1 Nephi 17:5 And we did come to the land which we did call Bountiful (Illustration -- Potter Theory): Map Showing the Trail Taken by the Family through Arabia. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 260]

1 Nephi 17:5 And we did come to the land which we did call Bountiful (Illustration -- Potter Theory): Land Bountiful. A satellite photo of Dhofar showing the trail leading to the frankincense port of Moscha at Khor Rori and the city of Merbat at Taqah. The extensive fruit plantations at Salalah and Taqah are clearly visible. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 194]

1 Nephi 17:5 And we did come to the land which we did call Bountiful (Illustration -- Potter Theory): Land Bountiful. Once the family neared the summit of the Qara mountains the contrast with the stark inland side of the mountains must have been amazing. They would have encountered the incredible lushness as the hillsides burst into bloom during the monsoons. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 194]

1 Nephi 17:5 A land which we called Bountiful because of its much fruit (Illustration--Potter Theory): Miles of fruit plantations abound from Salalah east to Taqah. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 194]

1 Nephi 17:5 A land which we called Bountiful because of its much fruit (Illustration--Potter Theory): The monsoon rains seep into the sandstone of the mountains giving rise to numerous springs that flow year round, like this one near Taqah. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 194]Looking west across one of the freshwater sources and up Wadi Sayq in Oman toward the beautiful lush mountainsides. . . Agricultural areas were discovered on the west side of the wadi area. (p. 57) Verdant wadi flora about a quarter of a mile from the seashore. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 47-57] 

1 Nephi 17:5 And we did come to the land which we called Bountiful (Illustration): Proposed reconstruction of the Lehi-Nephi trail along one of the ancient frankincense roads from the Red Sea to Bountiful. Map from the travel notes of the authors. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 133] 

1 Nephi 17:5 A land which we called Bountiful because of its much fruit (Illustration--Potter Theory): Wadi Dharbat contains numerous lakes which remain full throughout the year. This photo was taken 5 months after the end of the monsoon. [George Potter and Richard Wellington, Discovering the Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript, 2000, p. 194]

1 Nephi 17:6 We did pitch our tents by the seashore (Illustration): Family of Lehi Camped in Promised Land. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 71]

1 Nephi 17:6 We Did Pitch Our Tents by the Seashore (Accessible seashore--Potter Theory): (Illustration) Map of southeastern Arabia showing the final stages of Lehi's journey according to the Astons. [Warren P. Aston & Michaela Knoth Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 11] 

1 Nephi 17:7 I arose and went up into the mountain, and cried unto the Lord (Illustration): Nephi's Vision. Artist: Clark Kelley Price [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, January 1988, front and back cover]

1 Nephi 17:8 Thou shalt construct a ship (Illustration): Sohar: Sail and Rigging Plan. Sohar: Deck Plans [Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, pp. 236-237]

1 Nephi 17:8 Thou shalt construct a ship (Illustration): Launch ceremony for the ship, named Sohar at the Sultaln's request in honour of Oman's ancient port and reputed home of Sindbad the Sailor. Photograph by Bruce Foster. [Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, 64-65]

1 Nephi 17:9 Whither should I go that I may find ore to molten, that I may make tools to construct the ship (Illustration): Map of the Dhofar region showing the location of Mirbat and Raykut relative to proposed Bountiful locations. [Warren P. Aston & Michaela Knoth Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 11]

1 Nephi 17:9 Ore to molten that I may make tools to construct the ship (Illustration): This map of southern Oman shows the locations of the two iron ore deposits, indicated by the scientific abbreviation for iron (Fe). [Wm. Revell Phillips, "Metals of the Book of Mormon," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 9, Num. 2, 2000, FARMS, p. 40]

1 Nephi 17:11 I Nephi did make a bellows wherewith to blow the fire, of the skins of beasts (Illustration): This goatskin bellows is said to be hundreds of years old. When Nephi made "a bellows wherewith to blow the fire, of the skins of beasts" (1 Nephi 17:11), it may well have looked like this. [Lynn M. and Hope A. Hilton, "In Search of Lehi's Trail, Part 2: The Journey," in The Ensign, October 1976, p. 37]

1 Nephi 17:11 And I did smite two stones together that I might make fire (Illustration): Abundant deposits of jasper (a flint-like rock) are strewn along the upper reaches of the canyon of Wadi Sayq. If two of these rocks are struck repeatedly and sharply together, they will make sparks that can be used to ignite tinder and light a fire. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 52] 

1 Nephi 17:26 Ye know that by his [Moses'] word the waters of the Red Sea were divided (Illustration): Moses Parting the Red Sea. By the power of God, Moses divided the Red Sea and saved the children of Israel. Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 52]

1 Nephi 17:26 Now ye know that Moses . . . (Illustration): Chart: "1 Nephi and the Exodus." Lehi's group saw themselves as reenacting the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #94] [See the commentary on 1 Nephi 4:2] 

1 Nephi 17:48 They . . . were desirous to throw me into the depths of the sea (Illustration): Significantly, the waters along the beach here (in Wadi Sayq) are only shallow for a few short feet and then they drop rapidly to great depths, an appropriate place to launch a ship. . . Cliffs line the ocean front in this area. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 54]

1 Nephi 17:48 They . . . were desirous to throw me into the depths of the sea (Illustration-Potter). Richard sits atop one of the vertical cliffs between Taqah and Khor Rori looking down at the deep water below. This may well be the place that Laman and Lemuel attempted to throw Nephi into the depths of the sea. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 17:48 Touch me not, for I am filled with the power of God (Illustration): Nephi Subdues His Rebellious Brothers. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #303]

1 Nephi 17:48 Touch me not, for I am filled with the power of God (Illustration): Nephi Rebukes His Brothers. Nephi shocks his brothers with the power of God. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 55]

1 Nephi 18:1 I should work the timbers of the ship (Illustration): Large trees sixty to eighty feet high grow in abundance (in Wadi Sayq) starting about a half mile from the sea. Hardwood trees in the area include tamarindus, sycamore, and boscia. Timber would be needed for nearly every aspect of shipbuilding, including large amounts for the scaffolding and framework around the ship as well as for a large ramp for the ship to slide into the ocean. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 51]

1 Nephi 18:1 I should work the timbers of the ship (Illustration): In Wadi Sayq) large timber trees offer abundant timber along the sides of the valley almost to the present seashore. Sycamore fig (Ficus Sycamorus) and tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) trees are the two most common species at Kharfot today. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-67] 

1 Nephi 18:2 I Nephi did not work the timbers after the manner [of] men (Illustration): Arabian shipbuilders shaping and drilling timbers for handmade dhows. At Yenbo and Jiddah we saw ships built by the nailing method, while at Yemen and Oman we saw the sewing of planks lashed with hemp rope. [Lynn and Hope Hilton, In Search of Lehi's Trail, p. 85]

1 Nephi 18:2 Neither did I build the ship after the manner [of] men (Illustration): Nephi built a ship. Illustrators: Jerry Thompson and Robert T. Barrett. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Book of Mormon Stories, cover]

1 Nephi 18:3 I Nephi did go to the mount oft (Illustration): (In Wadi Sayq) this prominent peak overlooking the site on the western side of the bay may be "the mount" Nephi wrote of. . . . Steep cliffs lie at its base. [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, pp. 66-77] 

1 Nephi 18:3 I, Nephi, did go to the mount oft (Illustration): Western light spills over awesome mount at the seashore site of Wadi Sayq. This mountain, situated next to the isolated beach, is a candidate for the place Nephi would have come to receive instructions from the Lord. [Maurine and Scot Proctor, "Where Did Nephi Build the Ship?," in This People , Fall 1993, p. 42]

1 Nephi 18:4 I had finished the ship according to the word of the Lord (Illustration): Chart: Three Biblical Archetypes Compared to Nephi's Construction of the Ship. [John Welch and Morgan Ashton, "Three Biblical Archetypes Compared t Nephi's Construction of the Ship," in Charting the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., Packet 1. 

1 Nephi 18:6 We did go down into the ship (Illustration): A Model of Lehi's Ship? Lynn commissioned this exact 1/20 scale model of a larger 20 meter Arab dhow. This shipwright is from Eretheria Ethiopia, but did this work in 1985 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Probably Nephi's ship looked like this. This model is now on display at LDS Business College, Salt Lake City, Utah. [Lynn A. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton, Discovering Lehi, p. 152] 

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter): Positions of the Khors (Ports) on the Salalah Plain. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261] 

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): Table to Compare the Possible Ports in Dhofar. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 242]

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): A panorama of Khor Rori taken from the top of the west cliffs. The sandbar closing the harbor can be seen in the foreground. The cliffs here are vertical and may well be the place that Laman and Lemuel attempted to throw Nephi into the depths of the sea. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): Panorama of the harbor of Moscha (Khor Rori) taken from on top; of the "Queen of Sheba's palace" at Samharam. The Citadel sits atop the cliffs on the left. "Ship;s of Tarshish" probably moored on the shoreline in the foreground. Moscha was the capital port of Dhofar in Nephi's time. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): The satellite image shows the amazing cliffs at the mouth of Khor Rori. These natural breakwaters combined with the size of the khor to make it the premiere port in Dhofar. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): Satellite image of the area of "Merbat" (Taqah), the port of Moscha at Khor Rori, [and wadi Dharbat]. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 18:8 We had all gone down into the ship . . . we did put forth into the sea (Illustration-Potter Theory): George maps out the width of the trunk of one of the large trees in wadi Dharbat. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), p. 261]

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea (Illustration): Two possible routes for Lehi's voyage to the Land of Promise. Note: Alternate route would not require seeing land until arrival. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 84]

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea and were driven forth before the wind towards the promised land (Illustration): Track of Sohar [Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, inside front cover]

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea and were driven forth before the wind towards the promised land (Illustration): Seven centuries before Columbus, Arabs mastered the route to China to seek the riches of the Orient: camphor and cinnamon, pepper and ambergris, silk, gold, gems, porcelain, and sandalwood. The dependability of the monsoon winds (despite Sohar's trial in the doldrums), the navigator's sure knowledge of the stars, and the zeal to succeed made possible voyages a quarter of the way round the world. Photographs by Richard Greenhill. [Tim Severin, "In the Wake of Sindbad," in National Geographic, Vol. 162, no. 1, July 1982, pp. 12-13]

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea and were driven forth before the wind towards the promised land (Illustration): Sohar. Photograph by Richard Greenfield. [Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, 64-65]

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea and were driven forth before the wind towards the promised land (Illustration): Seven and a half months after leaving Muscat, Sohar makes her landfall on the China caost. Escorted up the Pearl River to Canton, she received an enthusiastic official welcome for the Chinese. Photograph by Richard Greenfield. [Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, 160-161]

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 18:8-23 Across the Sea to the Promised Land (Year 012)

1 Nephi 18:8 We did put forth into the sea (Illustration): This photograph shows the view a departing sea voyager would have looking back at "Bountiful." [Warren and Michaela Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, p. 66-67] 

1 Nephi 18:8 We . . . were driven forth before the wind (Illustration): Winter ocean currents in the Indian Ocean and normal ocean currents and atmospheric pressures in the Pacific Ocean. The ECC (the narrow Equatorial Counter Current) is the only Pacific current moving east. The other two, the NEC (North Equatorial Current) and the SEC (South Equatorial Current) move West. [David Clark, "Lehi and El Nino : A Method of Migration," p. 3] 

1 Nephi 18:8 We . . . were driven forth before the wind (Illustration): Summer ocean currents in the Indian Ocean and ENSO ocean currents and atmospheric pressures in the Pacific Ocean. The Equatorial Counter Current is intensified during an ENSO period. [David Clark, "Lehi and El Nino: A Method of Migration," p. 3]

1 Nephi 18:13 They knew not whither they should steer the ship (Illustration): Tim Severin shows Khamees Navy how to use a kamal, the medieval Arab navigation instrument. The kamal, a wooden tablet held out at the end of a string, measured the height of a selected star. With very little practice it was possible to obtain a latitude position accurate to within 30 miles.

1 Nephi 18:13 They knew not whither they should steer the ship (Illustration): Steering by Polaris, the North Star, Arab seafarers of old used a kamal, a kind of sextant, to measure latitude. At dusk, Severin demonstrates the technique to one of the Omani crew members. In his left hand he holds the kamal, a wooden rectangle, with its bottom edge on the horizon. A knotted string held in his teeth, each knot representing the latitude of a known port, tethers the kamal at the proper distance. The position of Polaris in reference to the kamal helps determine the ship's course (see diagrams). Photographs by Richard Greenhill. [Tim Severin, "In the Wake of Sindbad," in National Geographic, Vol. 162, no. 1, July 1982, p. 22]

1 Nephi 18:13 There arose a great storm, yea, a great and terrible tempest (Illustration): "The sea rose in her fury," Sindbad said of his sixth voyage. In the South China Sea, the men of Sohar keep faith with their predecessor. A sudden squall shreds the mizen into giant pennants flapping form the spar (above right). In 24 hours, two jibs and a mainsail are also lost, and the Europeans take notice when one of the veteran Omani sailors kneels and prays to Allah (above left bottom). Battered but seaworthy, the vessel proceeds. As another storm approaches, the crew hastens to take down the replacement mainsail (above left top). Photographs by Richard Greenhill. [Tim Severin, "In the Wake of Sindbad," in National Geographic, Vol. 162, no. 1, July 1982, pp. 32-33]

1 Nephi 18:13 (The chances of 81 consecutive correlations in Nephi's journey through Arabia) [Illustration]: The Hubble "Deep Space" Shot. This "Deep Space" image was taken with the Hubble telescope. To get a perspective of the photo if one were to hold a dime at arm's length the size of President Roosevelt's eye is the same size as the piece of space photographed here. This image represents only 1/45,000,000 of the sky. Essentially every shot of light you see here is a galaxy, each containing about 500,000,00 stars. Even the faintest speck of light is a galaxy! Even in this tiniest piece of our night sky man is now able to see some 1,000,000,000,000 stars. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), pp. 281-283]

1 Nephi 18:13 We were driven back upon the waters for three days (Points of Geographical Correlation [Illustration]: 81 Points of Correlation Nephi Makes Concerning His Journey through the Arabian Peninsula. [George Potter & Richard Wellington, Discovering The Lehi-Nephi Trail, Unpublished Manuscript (July 2000), pp. 284-286]

1 Nephi 18:21 After I had prayed the winds did cease, and the storm did cease, and there was a great calm (Illustration): Nephi Calms the Storm [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

1 Nephi 18:22  We sailed again towards the promised land (Illustration): Stitching against time, Indian fishermen at Beypore turn a ton of canvas into a new set of larger sails to replace Sohar's old ones, wind-worn and baggy after the 1,600-mile voyage from Oman. Severin bought the canvas and, with an assistant, drew the outlines of the sails on the beach. Thirty men hired for the occasion fell to with such vigor that they completed the sails in five days--a task that would have taken as long as four months in Europe or North America. Photographs by Richard Greenhill. [Tim Severin, "In the Wake of Sindbad," in National Geographic, Vol. 162, no. 1, July 1982, pp. 16-17]

1 Nephi 18:22  We sailed again towards the promised land (Illustration): Running with the wind, the 87-foot-long ship wears two settee sails and a jib; the 75-foot-long main spar weighs nearly a ton. The vessel was named Sohar after an ancient port in Oman reputed to have been Sindbad's birthplace. A cutaway of the hull reveals the crew's quarters for eight Arabs, ten Europeans, and a Baluchi cook. Photographs by Richard Greenhill. [Tim Severin, "In the Wake of Sindbad," in National Geographic, Vol. 162, no. 1, July 1982, p. 7]

1 Nephi 18:23 We Did Arrive at the Promised Land (Illustration): Views of Book of Mormon Geography. [Don R. Hender, "Theories of Book of Mormon Geography," http://www.xmission.com/~hunter/preface1.htm, Jan. 9 2001]

Geographical Theory Map: 1 Nephi 18:23 Lehi Arrives in the Promised Land (Year 014)

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive at the promised land (Illustration): Lehi and His People Arrive in the Promised Land. Artist: Arnold Friberg. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #304]

 [Vern Swanson, "The Book of Mormon Art of Arnold Friberg: "Painter of Scripture," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies , vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, p. 33] 

1 Nephi 18:23 We went forth upon the land . . . and we did call it the promised land (Illustration): Lehi Lands in America [Clark Kelley Price, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

1 Nephi 18:23 We went forth upon the land . . . and we did call it the promised land (Illustration): Arrival in the Promised Land. Lehi and his family arrive in the promised land. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 58]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive at the promised land (Illustration): "After we had sailed for the space of many days we did arrive at the promised land," by A&OR [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1159]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive in the promised land (Landing Site) [Illustration]: Stela 67, Chiapas, Mexico; may depict Lehi's journey to the New World. [Garth Norman, "Where Was the Land of First Inheritance?" in Joseph L. Allen ed., The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Fall 1992, p. 17]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive in the promised land (Landing Site) [Illustration]: Archaeologist Garth Norman measuring the cubit at Quirigua, Guatemala. [Garth Norman, "Where Was the Land of First Inheritance?" in Joseph L. Allen ed., The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Fall 1992, p. 16]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive in the promised land (Landing Site) [Illustration]: Stela 5 at Izapa, Chiapas, Mexico, illustrates 12 or 13 branches, as highlighted. Dates to 176 B.C. [Joseph L. Allen ed., The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Fall 1992, p. 7]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive in the promised land (Landing Site): Prontispiece, Monument 21, Bilbao, Guatemala. The highlighted portions illustrate seven tribes or lineages. The word for flint(a) in Hebrew is Zoram. Monument dates to A.D. 500. [Joseph L. Allen ed., The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Fall 1992, p. 8] [See Jacob 1:13]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive at the promised land (Landing Site) [Illustration]: The location of Izapa on the major trail of the ancient trade route between the Olmec territory and Kaminaljuyu in Guatemala City. [Clate Mask, "New Insights into an Old Problem: The Land of Bountiful," p. 2, unpublished]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive in the Promised Land (Landing Site) [Illustration]: The two Egyptian "ushsabti" figurines in a San Salvador museum. [John L. Sorenson, "Two Figurines From the Belleza and Sanchez Collection," in Reexploring the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., p. 20]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive at the promised land (Location) [Illustration]: Chronology of Nephite Events Compared with Mesoamerican Cultural History. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 193]

1 Nephi 18:23 We did arrive at the promised land (Illustration): Chart: "Nephite and Mesoamerican History." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #40] 

1 Nephi 18:25 The goat and the wild goat (Illustration): Native American Sheep and Goats. Two examples of how easily the Nephites could have domesticated native sheep and goats. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 90]

1 Nephi 19:1 The Lord commanded me, wherefore I did make plates of ore that I might engraven upon them the record of my people (Illustration): Nephi Making Plates [Bill Hill, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

1 Nephi 19:1-4 The Lord commanded me, wherefore I did make plates of ore that I might engraven upon them the record of my people (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

1 Nephi 19:2 I knew not at the time when I made them that I should be commanded of the Lord to make these plates (Illustration): Nephi with the Plates [Paul Mann, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 4]

1 Nephi 19:3 I, Nephi, received a commandment that the ministry and the prophecies, the more plain and precious parts of them should be written upon these plates (Illustration) Chart: "The Contents of the Book of Mormon Were Divinely Controlled." [Raymond C. Treat, "What Is in the Book of Mormon Is There for a Purpose," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol. 2, p. 172]

1 Nephi 19:3 I, Nephi, received a commandment that the ministry and the prophecies . . . should be written upon these plates (Illustration): "I, Nephi, received a commandment that the ministry and the prophecies . . . should be written upon these plates," by A&OR [W. Cleon Skousen, Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1162]

1 Nephi 19:10 To be crucified according to the words of Neum (Illustration): The Crucifixion. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #230]

1 Nephi 19:10 To be buried in a sepulchre (Illustration): Burial of Jesus. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #231]

1 Nephi 19:23 I did read unto them that which was written by the prophet Isaiah (Illustration): "Outlines of Passages Quoting Isaiah," [John Gee, "Choose the Things That Please Me": On the Selection of the Isaiah Sections in the Book of Mormon," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 76] 

1 Nephi 20-21 ("Borrowed Passages") [Illustration]: Parallel Passages [George D. Smith, Jr., "Defending the Keystone," in Sunstone, May/June, p. 48]

1 Nephi 20:18 Then had thy peace been as a river (Illustration): The Jordan River, just south of the Sea of Galilee. The Jordan River was an important water system in the Holy Land that still serves the needs of the communities in the region. Photograph by Justin Craig. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 67]

1 Nephi 20:18 Thy righteousness as the waves of the sea (Illustration): A view of the Mediterranean Sea coast, near ancient Joppa. Both Isaiah and Lehi liken bodies of water to persons. Lehi says to Laman, "O that thou mightest be like unto this river, continually running into the fountain of all righteousness!" (1 Nephi 2:9). Isaiah writes: "O that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river" (Isaiah 48:18). Photograph by Mindy Anderson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, pp. 66-67]

1 Nephi 22:4 And behold, there are many who are already lost from the knowledge of those who are at Jerusalem (Illustration): The Possible Route of the Ten Tribes of Israel: Covering Their Journey From Palestine to Arsareth. [R. Clayton Brough, The Lost Tribes: History, Doctrine, Prophecies, and Theories About Israel's Lost Ten Tribes, p. 38]

1 Nephi 22:20 [Moses said] A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you, like unto me (Illustration): Parallels Between Moses and Jesus. [Almon Fackrell, Parallels of Moses, Jesus and Joseph Smith, pp. 153-174]