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Moroni

 

A Confirming Covenant Witness

      Mormon 8 -- Moroni


 

 

 

 

     MORONI

 

 

Moroni 1:2 Their wars are exceedingly fierce among themselves (Illustration): (89) Copy of a painting from the walls of Cacaxtla, Mexico, showing ceremonial dress of

 

Geographical Theory MapMoroni 1:3 Moroni Wanders Whithersoever (401 A.S. - 421 A.S.)

 

Moroni 1:3 I wander withersoever I can for the safety of mine own life (Illustration): The Mortal Moroni. Sculptor: Avard Fairbanks. Photographed by Jed A. Clark. Among Church-related subjects LDS sculptor Avard Fairbanks depicted is this statue of The Mortal Moroni, which stands in a park west of the Manti Temple. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, September 1989, inside front cover]

 

Moroni 1:3 I did seal them up The hill Cumorah (Illustration): Hill Cumorah, Manchester, New York. Photographer: George Edward Anderson. This 1907 view shows the land around the hill which, at the time of the photograph, was used predominantly for farming. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, February 1993, inside back cover]

 

Moroni 1:4 I [Moroni] write a few more things (Illustration): Chart: Writings of Moroni. [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S.]

 

Moroni 6:1 I speak concerning baptism (Illustration): Claimed by Certain People to be a Baptismal Font at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. Father Diego de Landa, the first Catholic bishop who labored among the Itza Mayas of Yucatan, claimed the Indians were practicing baptism when the Europeans arrived. T.A. Willard wrote:

           "according to illustrations in the hieroglyphic books, coupled with the statement of Bishop Landa, the ancient Itza Mayas practiced baptism for which their word Caputcihil means to be born again." (Los Empires, p. 422).

           "Bernardino de Sahagun stated that . . . all the natives of that country [Yucatan] were baptized, no one being allowed to marry before the sacred ceremonies had been performed." (Cited in P. De Roo, History of America Before Columbus --Philadelphia, 1900, p. 466).

[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Book of Mormon, Seminary Edition, 1962.

 

 Moroni 8-9 Epistles of Mormon to his son Moroni (Illustration): A Chronological Setting for the Epistles of Mormon to Moroni (Charting the Time Frames of Textual Clues) [Alan C. Miner, "A Chronological Setting for the Epistles of Mormon to Moroni," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 3/2 (Fall 1994), p. 113]

 

Geographical Theory MapMoroni 8-9 Mormon Writes to His Son Moroni (375 A.S.--376 A.S.)

 

Moroni 9:9-10 They devour their flesh like unto wild beasts (Cannibalism) [Illustration]: The Aztecs carried the earlier, occasional rituals of human sacrifice and cannibalism to levels of depravity never equaled. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 212]

 

Moroni 9:20 [The Nephites'] wickedness doth exceed that of the Lamanites (Illustration): A Portrait of Bartolome' de Las Casas in the Biblioteque Nationale, Paris. Hutton Webster, History of Latin America, New York: D. C. Heath and Company, 1924, p. 89)

 

Moroni 9:20 [The Nephites'] wickedness doth exceed that of the Lamanites (Illustration): Portrait of Pedro de Alvarado from the Painting in the Cabildo [Municipal Council Center] of Guatemala. Drawn by William Baake. (The Cortes Society, Documents and Narratives concerning the Discovery and Conquest of Latin America, New York, 1924, p. 4

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records, after I have spoken a few words (Illustration Illustration): Moroni Burying the Plates. Artist: Jon McNaughton. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, September 1995, inside back cover]

 

Moroni 10:2 I [Moroni] seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Hides the Plates in the Hill Cumorah [or the hill in New York]. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #320]

 

Moroni 10:2 I [Moroni] seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Burying the Plates [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Burying the Plates. Artist: Jon McNaughton. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, September 1995, inside back cover]

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Burying the Plates. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, June 1987, p. 27]

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Burying the Record. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 617]

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records (Illustration): Moroni Burying the Plates. Moroni buried the gold plates and other sacred objects in the Hill Cumorah. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 599]

 

Moroni 10:2 And I seal up these records, after I have spoken a few words (Illustration): The New York Hill Cumorah. Artist: Alfred Lambourne. [L.D.S. Church, The Ensign, November 1981, inside back cover]

 

Geographical Theory MapMoroni 10:2 Moroni Seals Up the Record for the Last Time (421 A.S.?)

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up this record [stone box] (Illustration): Stone box displayed at Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. (Photo by Diane E. Wirth) [Diane E. Wirth, A Challenge to the Critics, p. 44]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (stone boxes) [Illustration]: Many Ancient Cultures Have Buried Records in Stone Boxes. Old World Records: Engraved plates of gold and silver were found buried in a stone box in the ruins of Persepolis, the ancient capital of Persia dating from the same century in which Lehi left Jerusalem. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 230]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up this record (Stone box) [Illustration]: Stone Box [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 346]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (stone box) [Illustration]: Foundation tablets deposited in a stone box at Nippur by the Babylonian King Nabopolassar (626-605 B.C.), British Museum] [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "Lands Of The Book Of Mormon," Slide #106]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records [Illustration]: A listing of statements by witnesses describing the "records" divided up in the following categories. (1) Material; (2) Weight; (3) Individual Plate Dimensions; (4) Thickness of Each Plate; (5) Volume Thickness; (6) Sealed and Unsealed Portions; (7) Rings and Binding Format; (8) Reading Order; (9) Characters, Text, and Plate Surface. [Kirk B. Henrichsen (comp.), "How Witnesses Described the 'Gold Plates'," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, pp. 16-21]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records [Illustration #1]: In 1877 Edward Stevenson interviewed David Whitmer, age 72, who recounted the story that his mother, Mary Musselman Whitmer, told him of being shown the plates by a heavenly messenger. Whitmer presumably drew the simple diagram, which Stevenson copies into his diary. [Kirk B. Henrichsen (comp.), "How Witnesses Described the 'Gold Plates'," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, pp. 16-21]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records [Illustration #2]: This conjectural reconstruction shows how the title page, the last plate written on in the Book of Mormon, could also appear as the first plate in the record.

[Kirk B. Henrichsen (comp.), "How Witnesses Described the 'Gold Plates'," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, pp. 16-21]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records [Illustration #3]: This is the only surviving copy of the characters from the gold plates. Because the characters are not arranged in columns, this is apparently not the transcription that Anthon saw. [Kirk B. Henrichsen (comp.), "How Witnesses Described the 'Gold Plates'," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, pp. 16-21]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records [Illustration #4]: Count Alexander von Humboldt published this drawing in 1814 of the Aztec Calendar Stone, which had been discovered in 1790. This is the only "Mexican calendar" that Anthon could have seen in Humboldt's work. [Kirk B. Henrichsen (comp.), "How Witnesses Described the 'Gold Plates'," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, pp. 16-21]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (Size) [Illustration]: Replica of laptop desk used by Joseph Smith to conceal the plates. It is four inches deep in the front and six inches deep in the back. Replica compliments of Bud Stone. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p.234]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (Size) [Illustration]: Replica of laptop desk, containing models of the gold plates, the breastplate, and the Urim and Thummim. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p.235]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (Size) [Illustration]: In this wooden box, Josoeph kept the Book of Mormon plates. The inside of the box measures 141/4" x 161/4". The depth is 61/4" sloping to 4". The lid and bottom are walnut, and the sides are made from boxwwod. The box was originally Samuel Smith's lap desk. In the possesssion of Emeritus Church Patriarch Eldred G. Smith. [Daniel H. Ludlow, S. Kent Brown, and John W. Welch selection eds., To All the World: The Book of Mormon Articles from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism, F.A.R.M.S., p. 34]

 

Moroni 10:2 I seal up these records (Weight & Composition) [Illustration]: It is of interest that tumbaga was commonly gilded by applying citric acid to the surface. The resulting chemical reaction eliminated copper atoms from the outer .0006 inch of the surface, leaving a microscopic layer of 23-carat gold that made the object look like it was wholly gold. (Reed H. Putnam, "Were the Plates of Mormon of Tumbaga?" The Improvement Era, Sept. 1966: 788-9, 828-31, Reprint by FARMS; and Heather Lechtman, "Pre-Columbian Surface Metallurgy," Scientific American 250 (June 1984): 56-63)

     In the process of depletion gilding, the particles of gold and copper that are uniformly distributed throughout the alloy are exposed to an open flame, which causes the copper to turn black. The copper is then removed by a mildly acidic "pickle," such as a citrus extract. When heated and polished, the remaining surface particles compress and form a thin layer of pure gold. ["Of What Material Were the Plates," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 10, num. 1, 2001, p. 21]

 

Moroni 10:16 And again, to another [is given by the Spirit of God] the interpretation of languages (Illustration): Wordprints and the Book of Mormon. [John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart 135]

 

Moroni 10:27-28 (Narrative Midrash) [Illustration]: [Angela M. Crowell, "Midrash: Ancient Jewish Interpretation and Commentary," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol 2, p. 29]

 

Moroni 10:29 And God shall show unto you, that that which I have written is true (Illustration): The process of preparing ancient legal documents involved writing the text in two parts and then sealing one part for future reference. Illustration by Michael Lyon. [John W. Welch, "Doubled, Sealed, and Witnessed Documents," in FARMS Update, no. 147, vol. 21, 2001, pp. 2; see also John W. Welch, "Doubled, Sealed, Witnessed Documents: From the Ancient World to the Book of Mormon," in Mormons, Scripture, and the Ancient World, pp. 391-444]