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Ether

 

A Confirming Covenant Witness

      Mormon 8 -- Moroni


 

 

 

 

     ETHER

 

 

 

The Book of Ether: [The Title and the Superscription of the Book of Ether] (Illustration): The Title Page from the book of Ether, First Edition (1830). [Joseph Smith, Junior, Author and Proprietor, The Book of Mormon, 1830, p. 538]
 

Ether 1:1 And now I Moroni proceed to give an account of those ancient inhabitants who were destroyed Illustration): Six Tragic Cycles in the Book of Ether. [Lee L. Donaldson, "The Plates of Ether and the Covenant of the Book of Mormon," in The Book of Mormon: Fourth Nephi through Moroni, From Zion to Destruction, p. 76]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 1:1-4 Moroni Writes from This North Country (401 A.S.--421 A.S.)

 

Ether 1:1 This north country (Illustration): The area referred to by Ixtlilxochitl as the "northern parts of the land." This area is the heartland of the ancient Olmecs. Moroni referred to the Jaredite heartland as "this north country." [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 56]

 

Ether 1:1 This north country (Illustration): Olmec (Jaredite) archaeological sites along Mexico's Gulf Coast. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 63]

 

Ether 1:2 I [Moroni] take my account from the twenty and four plates . . . which is called the Book of Ether (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Ether 1:2 The twenty and four plates (Illustration): A representation of the set of plates which Moroni gave to Joseph Smith. The metal bands represent the portion which was sealed. [Cover, The Book of Mormon Gospel Doctrine Teacher's Manual, 1991]

 

Ether 1:2 I [Moroni] take mine account from the twenty and four plates (Illustration): Chart: Sources Behind the Book of Ether. [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S.]

 

Ether 1:2 And I take mine account from the twenty and four plates (Illustration): Chart: "Sources behind the Book of Ether." Source: John W. Welch, "Sources behind the Book of Ether" (FARMS, 1986). [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., chart #15]

 

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower (Chronology) [Illustration]: Chronological Time Table Covering the Period of the Early Patriarchs (According to Scriptural Sources) [W. Cleon Skousen, The First 2,000 Years, p. xi]

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower (Chronology) [Illustration]: Archbishop James Ussher (1561-1656) [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 10]

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower (Chronology) [Illustration]: Projected Schedule of Dates from the Flood to the News World [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 10]

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower (Illustration): The Maya Codex Flood Scene] [Bruce W. Warren and David A. Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, ch. 2-3, unpublished]

 

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower [Illustration]: Conceptions of Noah's Ark [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 12]

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower [Illustration]: Related Species from a Single Source [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 16]

 

Ether 1:3 The first part of this record, which speaks concerning the creation of the world . . . even to the great tower (Geography) [Illustration]: Map I--Ancient Mesopotamia & Armenia [Randall Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 19]

Ether 1:3 The great tower (Illustration): Conceptions of the Great Tower. A conceptional concept of the Great Tower named Babel (per Maurano). Also, the great ziggurat at Ur, a more likely design. Note the similarity to Mesoamerican pyramids. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an American Record, p. 20]

Ether 1:6-33 Ether . . . was a descendant of . . . Jared (Jaredite Names) [Illustration]:

Ether 1:6-33 (Jaredite Kingship Lineage) [Illustration]: Chart: "Jaredite Kings." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #31]

Ether 1:33 The great tower (Illustration): Isometric drawing of the restored temple-tower of the mmon-god Nanna, built by King Ur-Nammu of Ur. [The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 155]

 

Ether 1:33 The great tower (Illustration): Ziggurat of Enlil. A. General View, Looking Southwest [Warren and Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, ch. 5, unpublished]

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Sites of Mesopotamian ziggurat towers. [The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 156]

Ether 1:33 [The Quinamis] came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): A representation of the heads of seven families of the Quinamis (Jaredites) traveling to this land through the sea in "caves." From Codex Vaticano A, p. 66v. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 47]

 

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Olmec (Jaredite) archaeological sites along Mexico's Gulf Coast [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 63]

 

Geographical Theory Map: Ether 1:33 Jared Comes Forth from the Great Tower (Year )

 

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Map 7. Early and Middle Preclassic Ruins in Mesoamerica. 2300 B.C. to 600 B.C. (Jaredite Period). [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 260]

 

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Olmec archaeological sites. [Charles R. Wicke, Olmec, inside cover]

 

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): 22-ton Olmec stone head--possibly representing Ixtlilxochitl's "first parents" who "came out from the tower" and who he referred to as "giants." Also possibly representing the "large" people (Jaredites) who's remains were found by Limhi's expedition (Mosiah 8:10). [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 64]

 

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Twenty-four-ton basalt head discovered at the ancient site of La Venta, Mexico. To date, twenty-three of these giant heads have been found, all from the Olmec period. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 201]

Ether 1:33 Jared came forth . . . from the great tower (Illustration): Examples of ziggurats from Biblical lands compared with the pyramids of Mesoamerica. [Tom Cryer, Visual Sermons, p. 171, unpublished]

 

Ether 1:33 The great tower (Illustration): The Tower of Babel. Artist: Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Courtesy of Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. [Donald W. Parry, "The Flood and the Tower of Babel," in The Ensign, January 1998, p. 39]

Ether 1:34 The brother of Jared being a large and mighty man, and a man highly favored of the Lord (Illustrated): The Brother of Jared. Artist: Del Parson. [Henry B. Eyring, "The Brother of Jared--An Expert at Learning," The Ensign, July 1978, p. 63]

 

Ether 1:34 The Brother of Jared (Illustration): The Brother of Jared. Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 613]

 

Ether 1:34 The brother of Jared (Illustration): The Brother of Jared as a Type of Jesus Christ [Thomas R. Valletta, "Jared and His Brother," in The Book of Mormon: Fourth Nephi through Moroni, From Zion to Destruction, pp. 307-308]

Ether 1:34 A large and mighty man (Illustration): A plaque on the wall of the mayor's palace at Cholula containing fragments of the earliest history of its people. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 53]

Ether 1:35 And it came to pass (Illustration): And It Came to Pass . . . Various tenses of this phrase as found in the Maya glyphs. . . . In 1981, linguist David Stuart identified a Mayan glyph meaning "and it came to pass," showing that it was in common use among the ancient Maya.51 Later, other Maya glyphs were identified as variations of that phrase: e.g., "It had come to pass" or "It would come to pass."52 [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, pp. 222-223]

Ether 1:38 He will drive us out of the land (Illustration): Four destructive periods as illustrated in the Aztec Calendar Stone [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 65]

Ether 2:1 Jared . . . went down into the valley which was northward (Illustration): Map II The uprooting of the Jaredites should not be viewed as a unique phenomenon, but as part of a much larger scattering of vast numbers of people in ancient Mesopotamia. Map II shows three established trade routes along the Euphrates River or from Asshur on the Tigris River across northern Mesopotamia to Harran and Carchemish (the land northward). [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, pp. 27-29, unpublished]

 

Ether 2:1 Jared . . . went down into the valley which was northward (Valley of Nimrod) [Illustration]: Map III, A proposed Jaredite route from Babylonia] [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America,, p. 37, unpublished]

Ether 2:2 They did carry with them (Illustration): Rock carving of a wagon from Syunik Region, Western Armenia, 2nd Millennium B.C. [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 31, unpublished]

 

Ether 2:3 Deseret (Illustration): The Red Crown (Dsrt Crown) is clearly depicted on a prehistoric potsherd from Nakada, thus placing it among the oldest known symbols of royalty. It is the crown of the Lady Neith and is often substituted for the sign of the bee. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 9, Plate XX (after Wainwright). [Hugh Nibley, There Were Jaredites, p. 321]

Ether 2:4 The Lord came down and talked with the brother of Jared (Illustration): The biblical scholar George Mendenhall identified six common steps in ancient covenants and treaties (Interpreter's Dictionary 1:714). [Lee L. Donaldson, "The Plates of Ether and the Covenant of the Book of Mormon," in The Book of Mormon: Fourth Nephi through Moroni, From Zion to Destruction, p. 73]

Ether 2:5 Into that quarter where there never had man been (Illustration):

     A. The Land of Shinear, where the Great Tower was (P. Dhorme, in Rev. Biblique (1928): 509-511). Ether 1:33.

     B. "The valley which was northward" (2:1). (The northern headwaters of the Euphrates "command a hub of radiating valleys and travel routes, to which the Euphrates owes its importance as a highway of commercial and military penetration." A. Moret, Hist. de l'Orient 1:306).

     C. "And the name of the valley was Nimrod" (2:1). Nimrod country: home of Nimrod place-names and legends. (N. Emin).

     D. "That quarter where there never had man been" (2:5). Anau, once thought to be the oldest city in the world, was originally built in a wilderness.

     E. "The sea in the wilderness" (2:7). Both the Aral and Caspian Seas were much larger in ancient times than they are today.

     F. "Many waters" (2:6). The Turanian plain was anciently full of lakes, marshes, and streams. The Oxus Delta was a vast lake.

     G. Ancient course of the Oxus (as recently as the time of Alexander), now dried up.

[Hugh Nibley, The World of the Jaredites, p. 202]

Ether 2:5 Into that quarter where there never had man been (Illustration): The Initial Migration Route of the Jaredites. The Jaredites left the site of the Great Tower and traveled north to the valley called Nimrod. Sometime thereafter they crossed the Sea in the Wilderness beginning their long, long migration across central Asia. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 26]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 2:5 Into That Quarter Where Never Had Been Man (Year )

Ether 2:6 They did build barges, in which they did cross many waters (Illustration): A model boat that gives some idea concerning typical Mesopotamian water-borne commerce. [Bruce W. Warren and David A. Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, ch. 4, unpublished]

Geographical Theory MapEther 2:6 Travel in the Wilderness--across Many Waters (Year )

 

Ether 2:7 The sea in the wilderness (Illustration): Map IV, Possible Jaredite routes near the sea in the wilderness. [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 47, unpublished]

Ether 2:7 The Lord would not suffer that they should stop beyond the sea in the wilderness, but He would that they should come forth (Illustration): Map V, Possible Jaredite routes from the "sea in the wilderness" toward the "great sea which divideth the lands." [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America,, p. 51, unpublished]

 

Ether 2:7 The Lord did bring Jared and his brethren forth even to that great sea which divideth the lands (Illustration): Map VI Three probable routes of the Jaredites into East Asia from the Mongolian Plateau] [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 56, unpublished]

Ether 2:7 The Lord would not suffer that they should stop beyond the Sea in the wilderness, but he would that they should come forth (Illustration): The Most Probable Route Taken By the Jaredites Across Central Asia. The proposed route of the Jaredites shown on this map, stretching from the Great Tower to camp Moriancumer, is the most likely of the very few practical routes across central Asia. That route is basically the same as the one which, centuries later, became known as the "Silk Road," over which silks and spices were brought from the Far East to Europe. [Scott A. Glenn, Voices from the Dust, pp. 30-31]      

Ether 2:9 We can behold the decrees of God concerning this land (Illustration): The overarching Book of Mormon covenant to obey Jesus Christ as the God of the land fits a very old pattern] [Lee L. Donaldson, "The Plates of Ether and the Covenant of the Book of Mormon," in The Book of Mormon: Fourth Nephi through Moroni, From Zion to Destruction, p. 73]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 2:13 Jared Comes Forth to the Great Sea and Moriancumr (Year )

Ether 2:16 They were light upon the water, even like unto the lightness of a fowl upon the water (Illustration): Possible Jaredite Barge Construction. [Richard A. Gudmundsen, Scientific Inquiry Applied to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, p. 99]

 

Ether 2:17 The ends thereof were peaked (Illustration): 14th Century B.C. Mediterranean Trading Vessel. [Paul Hedengren, The Land of Lehi: Further Evidence for the Book of Mormon, p. 79]

Ether 2:17 The ends thereof were peaked (Illustration): Included in the famous Dorak treasure from Turkey is a silver sword. Down the length of the silver blade is engraved nine seagoing ships. All have peaked prows. . . . The sword is dated c. 2500 B.C. (It can be seen in color in The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands, Vol. 1, Yigael Yadin, p. 144.) [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, pp. 30, 272]

 

Ether 2:17 The length thereof was the length of a tree (Illustration): Figure 11, Mesopotamian And Egyptian Boatbuilding System, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 78, unpublished]

 

Ether 2:19 Wither shall we steer? (Illustration): Egyptian steering oar attached to the vessel's stern] [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 90, unpublished]

Ether 2:20 Thou shalt make a hole in the top, and also in the bottom(Illustration): Possible Jaredite Barge Construction. [Richard A. Gudmundsen, Scientific Inquiry Applied to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, p. 99]

 

Ether 2:20 Thou shalt make a hole in the top, and also in the bottom (Illustration): Barge Cross Section, Opening with Plug [Paul Hedengren, The Land of Lehi: Further Evidence for the Book of Mormon, p. 79]

 

Ether 2:20 Thou shalt make a hole in the top, and also in the bottom (Illustration): Free-flooding compartment under submerged conditions [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, p. 98, unpublished]

 

Ether 2:20 Thou shalt make a hole in the top, and also in the bottom (Illustration): These illustrations show how the Jaredite barges may have looked based on F.E. Butterworth's concept of seagoing Polynesian catamarans in his book Pilgrims of the Pacific. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 42]

Ether 3:1 The mount which they called . . . Shelem because of its exceeding height (Illustration): One of the major clues to the location of the Jaredites on the coast of East Asia is the reference to a mountain of "exceeding height." There appear to be many such peaks along the Chinese coastline, virtually all of which are located either around the Gulf of Chihli or south of the Yangtze River. Map VII identifies these peaks and shows their proximity to the proposed routes of the Jaredites into East Asia] [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, pp. 57-58, unpublished]

Ether 3:6 The Lord stretched forth his hand and touched the stones one by one with his finger (Illustration): The Brother of Jared Sees the Finger of the Lord. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #318]

Ether 3:14 I am he who was prepared from the foundation of the world to redeem my people (Illustration): The Council in Heaven. "I am he who was prepared from the foundation of the world to redeem my people. Behold, I am Jesus Christ." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 615]

Ether 3:15 Seest thou that ye are created after mine own image? (Illustration): Chart: "Does Christ Have a Body?" Source: Susan Easton Black, Finding Christ through the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1987), 52-56. [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #52]

Ether 3:22 Ye shall write them and shall seal them up (Illustration): Cylinder seals [Bruce W. Warren and David A. Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, ch. 4, unpublished]

Ether 3:24 These (two) stones shall magnify to the eyes of men these things (Illustration): Artist's conception of the Divine Spectacles of the Urim and Thummim; Star of David, Capernaum, Israel; Mayan Star of David, Copan, Honduras [Tom Cryer, Visual Sermons, pp. 68-69]

 

Ether 3:24 These (two) stones shall magnify to the eyes of men these things (Illustration): Various Concepts of the Urim and Thummim and the Breastplate. Various concepts which have been advanced regarding the possible appearance of the Urim and Thummim, and the Breastplate. Figure 23. Various Mesoamerican sculptures appearing to involve spectacles. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 124]

Ether 5:1 I, Moroni, have written the words which were commanded me, according to my memory (Illustration): Chart: "The Contents of the Book of Mormon Were Divinely Controlled." [Raymond C. Treat, "What is in the Book of Mormon is There for a Purpose," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol. 2, p. 172]

 

Ether 6:4 When they had prepared all manner of good, that thereby they might subsist upon the water (Illustration): Chart: A Coarse Estimate of the Required Stores for a Year's Voyage. [Richard A. Gudmundsen, Scientific Inquiry Applied to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, p. 101]

 

Ether 6:5 They were tossed upon the waves of the sea before the wind (Illustration): Map VIII presents a simplified view of the ocean currents of the North Pacific. Map IX shows the course of the Tai Ki and how seriously it was affected by the storms encountered in the western North Pacific. As can be seen, the ocean currents provided only the barest of outlines for the course of a small boat across the Pacific. The severe North Pacific storms drive a small craft at their whim and have a dramatic effect on the ultimate course. However, Map X shows the typical wind patterns and storm tracks for the North Pacific that would be expected during a year-long voyage beginning in the East China Sea in autumn. . . . As can be seen from comparing Maps VIII and X, these storm tracks virtually parallel the North Pacific currents that wend their way from China to America. [Randall P. Spackman, The Jaredite Journey to America, pp. 155-158, unpublished]

Ether 6:7 Like the ark of Noah (Illustration): Building the Ark. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #102]

 

Ether 6:7 The ark of Noah (Illustration): The Lord Fulfilleth All His Words. Artist: Clark Kelley Price. [Donald W. Parry, "The Flood and the Tower of Babel," in The Ensign, January 1998, p. 36]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 6:8-12 Driven before the Wind 344 Days to the Promised Land (Year )

Ether 6:10 And no monster of the sea could break them (Illustration): Monument No. 12 at La Venta Museum, Villahermosa, Tabasco.] [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 57]

 

Ether 6:10 No monster of the sea could break them, neither whale that could mar them (Illustration): Jaredite Barges [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

 

Ether 6:10 No monster of the sea could break them, neither whale that could mar them (Illustration): Jaredite Barges. Eight barges carried the Jaredites to the promised land. Artist: Gary E. Smith. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 621]

Ether 6:11 Three hundred and forty four days upon the water (Illustration): Map #5, Voyage of the Ra] [Verneil Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 98]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 6:12 Jared Lands upon the Shore of the Promised Land (Year )

 

Ether 6:12 They did land upon the shore of the promised land (Chronology) [Illustration]: Projected Schedule of Dates from the Flood to the New World. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 14]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 6:13 Jared Goes Forth Upon the Face of the Land (Year )

 

Ether 6:13 They went forth upon the face of the land (Illustration): San Jose Mogote and the northern valley of Oaxaca, the best candidate to have been the Jaredite Moron. (Courtesy Richard Jones)] [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 185]

 

Ether 6:13 They went forth upon the face of the land (Illustration): The valley of Oaxaca seen from Monte Alban [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "Lands of the Book of Mormon," Slide #86]

Ether 6:13 They went forth upon the face of the land (Illustration): Map 2. (Ainsworth Geographical Theory). The landing site of the Jaredites and first landing site of Mulekites. Final landing site of Mulekites. Landing site of Lehi. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 49]

 

Ether 6:13 They went forth upon the face of the land (Illustration): (22) the "land of the white caps"--snow covered volcanoes in Puebla, Mexico (Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl). (23) The "land of the smoking mountains"--smoking volcano in Puebla, Mexico (Popocatepetl). [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 50]

 

Ether 6:13 They went forth upon the face of the land (Illustration): (26) A round, spiral pyramid at Xochitecatl, seven miles from Cholula. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 52]

Geographical Theory Map: Ether 6:14-7:3 Kingship Begins in the Land of Moron (Chronology):

 

Ether 6:23 Surely this thing [Kingship] leadeth into captivity (Illustration): The following genealogical chart illustrates the early part of Jaredite history. Notice how short the time was between the brother of Jared's prophecy and its fulfillment. [CES, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 139]

Ether 7:1 [Orihah's] days were exceeding many (Illustration): A Projected Chronology of Jaredite History. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 46]

     According to Bruce Warren, "Kib" (Ether 7:3) is a familiar Mesoamerican name. It is the name of the sixth month in the Yucatec Maya calendar. [Bruce W. Warren, Blaine M. Yorgason, Harold Brown, New Evidences of Christ in Mesoamerica, Unpublished Manuscript]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 7:4 - 7:13 Corihor Reigns in the Land of Nehor (Chronology):

Geographical Theory MapEther 7:13 - 7:19 Shule Restored to Power (Chronology)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 7:19 - 8:1 Two Kingdoms (Moron & Nehor) Are United (Chronology)

Geographical Theory MapEther 8:2 - 8:6 Jared Comes to the Land of Heth (Chronology)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 8:8 - 9:3 Akish Overthrows Kingdom (Chronology):

Ether 8:15 Oaths . . . which had been handed down even from Cain, who was a murderer from the beginning (Illustration): Cain's Path to Spiritual Destruction. [Handout, David Ridges]

Ether 9:3 The hill Shim (Illustration): Hill Cintepec [Bruce W. Warren and David A. Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, p. 7-2, unpublished]

Ether 9:3 Omer came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed (Illustration): The two peaks of the Hill shim (right) and the Hill Ramah/Cumorah (left) on site in Veracruz, Mexico. Photographer: Ian Miller in The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. I, Issue IV, 1998, p. 13]

Ether 9:3 Ablom (Illustration): Map of the route of the flight around the hill Vigia and over Roca Partida. [David A. Palmer, Robert E. Fisher, and Octaviano Tenorio, "Trip Report--Bountiful Expedition," submitted March 17, 1990, used by permission from the files of Robert E. Fisher and John L. Sorenson]

 

Ether 9:3 Ablom (Illustration): Video: Second Flyover of Cerro Vigia and Roca Partida. [David A. Palmer, Robert E. Fisher, and Octaviano Tenorio, "Trip Report--Bountiful Expedition," submitted March 17, 1990, used by permission from the files of Robert E. Fisher]

 

Ether 9:3 Ablom (Illustration): Photo: Ruins at the Gulf Coast. [David A. Palmer, Robert E. Fisher, and Octaviano Tenorio, "Trip Report--Bountiful Expedition," submitted March 17, 1990, used by permission from the files of Robert E. Fisher]

 

Geographical Theory Map: Ether 9:5 - 9:26 Omer Restored to Power (Chronology):

 

Ether 9:6 Akish reigned in his stead (Illustration): A Projected Chronology of Jaredite History. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 46]

 

Ether 9:12, 9:26 (Illustration) People spread again over all the Land

 

Ether 9:17 Having all manner . . . of silks, and of fine linen (Illustration): Agave fibers drying, for use in textiles -- Northern Mexico; photo by Wayne E. Simmons. [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 122]

 

Ether 9:17 Having all manner . . . of precious things (Illustration): [The Obsidian Monkey Pot]

 

Ether 9:17 Having all manner . . . of precious things (Illustration): Pottery lasts forever, and in southern Mexico, early culture levels contain a black tripod pottery vessel with legs like full, pendant breasts very similar to that of the Yang Shao civilization in China, a territory that would have been known in the Jaredite travels. [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 47]

 

Ether 9:19 And they also had horses and asses (Illustration): A Moundbuilder pictograph of the likeness of an unbridled horse in Picture Canyon, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, which shows that Indians in early times were acquainted with horses. This picture appeared in October 1955 Improvement Era. [Glen W. Chapman, "Horses and the Book of Mormon," http://www.2s2.com/chapmanresearch/user/documents/horses.html]

 

Ether 9:19 There were Elephants (Illustration): Elephants in Ancient America. A) The skeleton of an American Imperial Elephant (Mammuthus imperator) was dug from the tar pits at La Brea, California. It is on display at the Los Angeles Museum of History and Science. These beasts ranged form west of the Mississippi to as far south as central Mexico. B) The author photographed this elephant skull at La Venta Park Villahermosa, Mexico. It was dug up at La Venta Island, Mexico. C) Remains of Dwarf Mammoths have been found on islands off the coast of Siberia and California. Named Mammuthus exilis, they were about 70% the size of their larger relatives. Some of them survived until at least 3700 years ago (1700 B.C.) [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 50]

 

Ether 9:19 There were Elephants (Illustration): Petroglyph of an elephant done by some ancient artist on a canyon wall of the Colorado river near Moab, Utah. Clair Weldon and Roy Weldon in picture. [Roy E. Weldon, The Book of Mormon Evidences Joseph Smith a Prophet, p. 13]

 

Ether 9:19 Elephants (Illustration): Chac, the long-nosed rain god, Codex Tro-Cortesiano. From Codices Maya by Villacorta & Villacorta, Guatemala City: Tipografia Nacional (1930). [Diane E. Wirth, A Challenge to the Critics, p. 52]

Geographical Theory MapEther 9:27 - 9:33 No Rain--Heth Flees Southward--Serpents (Chronology)

Geographical Theory MapEther 10:1 - 10:16 People Begin to Spread Over All the Land (Chronology)

 

Ether 10:9 [Morianton] being a descendant of Riplakish (Illustration): A Projected Chronology of Jaredite History. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 46]

Ether 10:12 Morianton built up many cities (Illustration): Figure 7-4 Photo showing Warren and Palmer at San Jose Mogote by the temple [Bruce W. Warren and David A. Palmer, The Jaredite Saga, 7-14, unpublished]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 10:16 - 10:32 City of Lib Built Where the Sea Divides the Land (Chronology)

Ether 10:17 Kish (Illustration): Map #1, Ancient Cities of Mesopotamia. [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 22]

Ether 10:17 Kish [U-Kish-Kan] (Illustration): Tablet of the Cross from the Temple of the cross at Palenque, Chiapas about A.D. 692. This tablet gives much mythological and legendary ancestry for the Maya rulers Pacal and Chan-Bahlum who lived in the seventh century A.D. However, the earliest mythological ancestry dates back into the third millennium B.C. (Courtesy of Linda Schele.) [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 88]

 

Ether 10:18 Lib reigned in [Kish's] stead (Illustration): A Projected Chronology of Jaredite History. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 46]

Ether 10:18 Lib Reigned in [Kish's] Stead (Location - San Lorenzo) [Illustration]: Remains of an ancient reservoir at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz] [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "The Lands Of The Book Of Mormon, Slide #84]

 

Ether 10:19 In the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed (Illustration): The Jaredites were deeply concerned about the power of snakes in connection with drought (see Ether 9:30-4; 10:19). Some priests or rulers may have considered themselves to be under the protection of serpents. This awesome Olmec rattlesnake is on Monument 19 at La Venta. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 215]

Ether 10:19 And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed (Illustration): Serpent Mosaic in La Venta, Mexico [Joseph L. Allen, "Poisonous Serpents Uncovered," in The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. I, Issue IV, 1998, p. 6]

 

Ether 10:19 And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed (Illustration): Buried Creations. (A) In mysterious rituals the Olmec at La Venta created stone masterworks and immediately concealed them. About 2,600 years ago workers dug a pit 23 feet deep in a courtyard, spread a base of sticky tar from petroleum seeps, and laid out blue-green serpentine blocks. They bordered the image with yellow clay, tamped blue clay in central openings, then covered it all with layers of colored clay. (George E. Stuart, "New Light on the Olmec," in National Geographic, Vol. 184, No. 5 (November 1993), pp. 106-107. Painting by Fellipe Davalos. Photograph by Kenneth Garrett.)

 

Ether 10:19 And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed (Illustration): Buried Creations. (B) In 1943 archaeologist Matthew Stirling and his crew dug for two months to remove tons of rubble. What was the impressive mosaic they uncovered, now preserved with other La Venta artifacts in a Villahermosa park? Was it so sacred that it had to be concealed? If a notch on one side is the forehead cleft typical of Olmec deities, the image may represent a jaguar mask. But if the notch belongs at the bottom, as Kent Reilly of Southwest Texas State University believes, the central column could symbolize the sacred tree of life. (George E. Stuart, "New Light on the Olmec," in National Geographic , Vol. 184, No. 5 (November 1993), pp. 106-107. Painting by Felipe Davalos. Photograph by Kenneth Garrett.)

Ether 10:20 They built a great city . . . by the place where the sea divides the land (Illustration): Central Pyramid at La Venta, constructed one millennium before Christ by the Olmecs. It is over thirty meters high and gives a commanding view of the countryside. It is shaped like one of the volcanoes in the Tuxtla Mountains. Basalt columns in the foreground were hewn anciently and transported perhaps a hundred kilometers to La Venta] [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 143]

 

Ether 10:20 They built a great city . . . by the place where the sea divides the land (Illustration): The ruins of La Venta, thought to be the city of Mulek. (Photo by Daniel Bates. Courtesy David A. Palmer and the Society for Early Historic Archaeology] [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 215]

 

Ether 10:23 They did make . . . iron (Illustration): Chunks of magnetite ore and remnants of very smooth iron mirrors which were found by the University of Michigan in excavations of workshops at San Jose Mogote. They are three thousand years old. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 133]

 

Ether 10:23 They did make . . . iron (Illustration): An Olmec iron mirror with a concave center. It is of a type worn by the Olmec rulers. This mirror was fashioned by hand, and may have required hundreds of hours of labor. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 113]

 

Ether 10:23 They did make . . . iron (Illustration): Magnetite iron ore mined anciently in the hills around San Jose Mogote. [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "The Lands Of The Book Of Mormon, Slide #88]

 

Ether 10:23 They did work in all manner of ore (Illustration): Museums Are Full of Metal Tools from Ancient Mesoamerica: (a) The author photographed these bronze implements at the National Museum of Anthropology; (b) Awls from Lake Chapala, Michoacan; (c) Chisel and axe from Mitla, Oaxaca; (d) Tweezers from Michoacan; (e) Copper axe in wood handle from a Tzintzuntzan grave; (f) Copper tools from an unknown source in Mexico; (g) Hardened copper chisel from Oaxaca. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 54]

 

Ether 10:24 They did work all manner of cloth (Illustration): An Aztec mother teaches weaving to her daughter at home. (Codex Mendoza) [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 74]

 

Ether 10:30 Hearthom . . . served . . . in captivity (Illustration): Jaredite History: From the Great Tower to Ramah. [Bruce W. Warren, "Jaredite History: From the Great Tower to Ramah," unpublished]

 

Ether 10:32 Com drew away half the kingdom and . . . obtained power over the remainder of the kingdom (Illustration): Monument of a seated Olmec ruler on display in the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Note the pendant hung from the neck, believed to be a representation of the concave iron mirrors worn by the rulers. The head and arms were knocked off deliberately, probably in a civil war. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 138]

 

Ether 10:32 Com drew away half the kingdom and . . . obtained power over the remainder of the kingdom (Illustration): Statue of a crouching man found at San Lorenzo. The head was deliberately knocked off, probably during the destruction which accompanied a civil war at San Lorenzo. It appears that the statue may have originally had wooden arms that pivoted.] [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 140]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 11:4 - 11:15 Civil War - Moron Regains All of Kingdom (Chronology)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 11:15 - 11:32 Ether Prophesies Doom to Coriantumr (Chronology)

Ether 12:1 Coriantumr was king over all the land (Illustration): A Projected Chronology of Jaredite History. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust: New Light on an Ancient American Record, p. 46]

Ether 12:39 I have seen Jesus Christ (Illustration): Chart: "People to Whom Jesus Christ or the Angel of the Lord Appeared." Source: John W. Welch, "Ten Testimonies of Jesus Christ from the Book of Mormon," in Doctrines of the Book of Mormon: The 1991 Sperry Symposium, ed. Bruce A. Van Orden and Brent L. Top (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1992), 223-42. [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #41]

 

Ether 13:5 Ether spake concerning the house of Israel (Illustration): Chart #2: The Genealogy of Shem. [Verneil Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 51]

 

Ether 13:5 After Jerusalem should be destroyed it should be built up again, a holy city (Illustration): Jerusalem. Ether prophesied that after Jerusalem would be destroyed it would "be built up again, and become a holy city of the Lord." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 639]

Ether 13:14 [Ether] dwelt in the cavity of a rock (Illustration): Ether Hiding in the Cave. "As [Ether] dwelt in the cavity of a rock he made the remainder of this record, viewing the destructions which came upon the people, by night." Artist: Gary Smith. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 641]

Ether 13:14 [Ether] made . . . this record (Written Records) [Illustration]: Markings on the inscribed roller stamp ("cylinder seal") found at La Venta, Tabasco, and Anthon Transcript equivalents. [Carl H. Jones, "The 'Anthon Transcript' and Two Mesoamerican Cylinder Seals," Newsletter and Proceedings of the S.E.H.A., Number 122, September 1970]

Geographical Theory MapEther 13:23 - 13:31 Shared Battles Coriantumr (Chronology)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 14:3 - 14:11 Brother of Shared Claims Land of Moron (Chronology)

 

Coriantumr Fights with Lib (Illustration)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 14:13 - 14:20 Total Civil War (Chronology)

 

Ether 14:17 Many cities (Illustration): Fig. 1. Map of the Olmec heartland] [Charles R. Wicke, Olmec, p. XIV]

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 14:26 - 14:31 Coriantumr Battles Shiz (Chronology)

 

Geographical Theory MapEther 14:31 - 15:14 Final Battles ---> Hill Cumorah (Chronology)

 

Ether 15:7 The waters of Ripliancum (Illustration): ERTS Satellite picture showing the Papaloapan lagoon system (Waters of Ripliancum?) in relationship to the Cerro Vigia (Hill Ramah/Cumorah) with two locational keys to the Mesoamerican map. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, pp. 94-95]

 

Ether 15:7 The waters of Ripliancum (Illustration): The great swamp and lagoon system of central Veracruz would serve as the "waters of Ripliancum" that blocked the retreat of Jaredite armies. (Photo by James C. Christensen used by permission of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.] [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 347]

Ether 15:11 Ramah (Illustration): Cerro El Vigia, the best candidate for the Hill Cumorah and the Hill Ramah. The battles of the Nephites and Jaredites would have taken place on the plains, beyond the hill in this view. (Courtesy Richard Jones.) [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting For The Book Of Mormon, p. 349]

 

Ether 15:11 Ramah (Illustration): View of the cloud-shrouded Cerro Vigia as it appears from the side of Tres Zapotes. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 99]

 

Ether 15:11 Ramah (Illustration): Cerro Vigia on the western edge of the Tuxtla Mountains, a plausible candidate for the hill Ramah-Cumorah] [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "Lands of the Book of Mormon," Slide #103]

Geographical Theory MapEther 15:15 - 15:34 Ether Finishes His Record (Chronology)

Ether 15:15 Headplates (Illustration): A representation of Olmec stone heads (with "headplates") by Charles R. Wicke, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz, 1971, p. 70, reprinted in [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 132]

 

Ether 15:15 Armed with weapons of war (Illustration): Two stone instruments believed to be weapons, or axe heads, found in the museum at Santiago Tuxtla, which is at the base of the Cerro Vigia. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, pp. 119]

Ether 15:19 They were given up . . . that they might be destroyed (Illustration): Chart: A comparison of events and conditions in Mesoamerica, the Book of Mormon, and the ancient Near East. (Earlier dates are represented at the bottom, as they would be in archaeological excavations.) [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 118]

 

Ether 15:30 (Coriantumr) smote off the head of Shiz (Illustration): [Garth Norman, Izapa Sculpture, part 2, 123]