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Mormon

 

Covenant Obedience Brings Peace -

 3 Nephi 11 -- Mormon 7      Disobedience Brings Destruction


 

 

 

 

 

     MORMON

 

Mormon 1:1-4 Ammaron said unto me [Mormon] . . . take the plates of Nephi unto yourself (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mormon 1:2 I being about ten years of age (Illustration): Mormon As a Young Boy. Artist: Scott Snow. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, November 1987, p. 84]

 

Mormon 1:2 I [Mormon] being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned (Illustration): Mormon Age 10. Mormon was "a sober child, and . . . quick to observe." Artist: Scott Snow. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 583]

Mormon 1:3 The land Antum (Illustration): Map 24. The Land Antum. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 147]

 

Mormon 1:3 The land Antum (Illustration): 73. The Hill Malinche in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico; possible site of the Hill Shim. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 148]

Mormon 1:6 I [Mormon] was carried . . . into the land southward (Illustration): (76) Rolled-out watercolor painting from a Mayan vase in Ratinlixul, Guatemala, showing use of a litter. Used by permission of the University of Pennsylvania. (77) Tracing of a small portion of Stela 21, showing use of a litter, from Izapa, southern section of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. (78) Use of litter in transportation, from Codice Magliabechi, p. 35. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 154]

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 1:1-6 Mormon Goes Southward To Zarahemla (322 A.S.)

Mormon 1:7 The whole face of the land had been covered with buildings, and the people were as numerous almost, as it were the sand of the sea (Illustration): (79) Painting of a section of El Mirador, an ancient city in the northern part of Guatemala (Zarahemla). "The whole face of the land had become covered with buildings, and the people were as numerous almost, as it were the sand of the sea" (Mormon 1:7. Used by permission of the National Geographic Society. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 155]

 

Mormon 1:7 The whole face of the land had been covered with buildings, and the people were as numerous almost, as it were the sand of the sea (Illustration): (81) Painting of a section of Tikal, a large ancient city in the northern (Peten) section of Guatemala (Zarahemla). [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 157]

Geographical Theory MapMormon 1:10 War Starts in the Borders of Zarahemla (322 A.S.--326 A.S.)

Mormon 1:18 [They] began to hide up their treasures in the earth (Illustration): Figure 5: Earth---As Related to Humans. Figure 6: Earth---Ground as Ground. [Roger R. Keller, Book of Mormon Authors: Their Words and Messages, p. 74]

 

Mormon 1:19 There were sorceries, and witchcrafts, and magics (Illustration): Secrecy was heavily ingrained in Mesoamerican life. Witchcraft and sorcery were, and still are, common ingredients in the social and ritual life of certain groups. The remarkable piece of ceramic sculpture shown here dates to the Maya Late Classic. It recalls Mormon 1:19, written in the fourth century A.D., "There were sorceries, and witchcrafts and magics . . . upon all the face of the land." [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 119]

Mormon 2:2 I [Mormon] did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

Geographical Theory Map:Mormon 2:3 Nephites Begin Retreat towards the North Countries (327 A.S.--331 A.S.)

Mormon 2:8 The land was filled with robbers (Illustration): Masks like this one of the Teotihuacan era have been interpreted as evidence for secret societies (Photo by Daniel Bates. Courtesy David A. Palmer and the Society for Early Historic Archaeology.) [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 303]

Geographical Theory Map:Mormon 2:4-7 Nephites Driven from Angola, David--Gather to Joshua (327 A.S.--331 A.S.)

Geographical Theory Map:Mormon 2:10-15 [No Record] Mormon Goes to Hill Shim and Retrieves Plates ("335 A.S.")

Geographical Theory MapMormon 2:16 The Nephites Flee to the Land of Jashon (345 A.S.)

Geographical Theory MapMormon 2:20 The Nephites Are Driven Northward to the Land of Shem (345 A.S.--346 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 2:26-28 The Nephites Retake the Lands of Their Inheritance (346 A.S.--349 A.S.)

Geographical Theory MapMormon 2:28-29 Treaty: Nephites = Land Northward Lamanites = Land Southward (350 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 3:5-8 Lamanites Beaten Twice at Desolation 361 A.S.--362 A.S.

Geographical Theory MapMormon 3:5 The Nephites Gather at Desolation (by the Narrow Pass) (361 A.S.--362 A.S.)

 

Mormon 3:5 The City of Desolation (Illustration): The proposed geographical locations at the A.D. 360 gathering (at Desolation) near the Narrow Neck of Land. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 348]

 

Mormon 3:5 The City of Desolation (Illustration): The proposed location of the A.D. 375 battle between the Nephites and the Lamanites. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 348]

 

Mormon 3:5 The City of Desolation (Illustration): Map illustrating the Nephite cities of Angola, David, Joshua, and Jashon. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 395]

 

Mormon 3:5 A City which was in the borders, by the narrow pass (Illustration): Map #4 shows a number of the ruins which definitely date to the Nephite period located in the general area of these lagoons. The NWAF has reported many other sites without a description of their age. They also reported a number of sites dating to the early Classic time period which begins in A.D. 300. Such sites were not included because they might, but don't necessarily, go back to the time of Mormon. (Delagado, 1965) [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, pp. 34, 256-257]

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 3:9--4:1 The Nephites Wage War (363 A.S.)

Mormon 3:18 I [Mormon] write unto the ends of the earth (Illustration): Chart: Writings of Mormon. [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S.]

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 4:2 The Lamanites Take Desolation (364 A.S.)

Geographical Theory MapMormon 4:7-8 The Nephites Take Desolation Back (364 A.S.--366 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 4:10-14 The Lamanites Retake Desolation and Teancum (367 A.S.)

Geographical Theory MapMormon 4:15 The Lamanites Are Driven Out of Nephite Lands (367 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 4:16-23 Lamanites Use All Power--Begin to Sweep Off the Nephites (375 A.S.)

     Mormon Goes to the Hill Shim

Geographical Theory MapMormon 5:3-5 The Nephites Flee to Jordan (Jashon?) (375 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 5:6-7 The Lamanites Overwhelm the Nephites--the Nephites Flee (380 A.S.)

 

Geographical Theory MapMormon 6:1-5 Mormon Writes to the Lamanite King--the Nephites Will Gather to Cumorah (381 A.S.)

Mormon 6:2 A hill which was called Cumorah (Illustration): Cerro Vigia on the western edge of the Tuxtla Mountains, a plausible candidate for the hill Ramah-Cumorah. [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, "Lands Of The Book Of Mormon," Slide #103]

Mormon 6:4 The Hill Cumorah (Geographical Setting--New York) [Illustration]: The north end of the hill Cumorah, near Palmyra, New York, as it appeared in 1904 in this single view from an Underwood and Underwood stereo view. Courtesy Rare Books and Manuscripts, Brigham Young University. [David A. Palmer, "Cumorah" in Daniel H. Ludlow, S. Kent Brown, and John W. Welch selection eds., To All the World: The Book of Mormon Articles from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism, F.A.R.M.S., p. 81]

Mormon 6:4 We did pitch our tents round about the hill Cumorah (Illustration): The information in Mormon's record about the final battle area matches in detail the characteristics of this hill, Cerro El Vigia, in southern Veracruz state and the region around it. this view of 2600-foot El Vigia is from the plains to its southwest, where the final battle likely took place. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 211]

 

Mormon 6:4 And [the hill Cumorah] was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains (Illustration): The land of Cumorah was an area with many streams and lakes, like this zone at the foot of Cerro El Vigia in south-central Veracruz state. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 210]

 

Mormon 6:4 And [the hill Cumorah] was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains (Illustration): Lago de Catemaco in the Tuxtlas Mountains of southern Veracruz qualifies as part of the complex of "many waters, rivers, and fountains" in the area of Cumorah (Mormon 6:4). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 202]

 

Mormon 6:4 It was a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains (Illustration): Eyipantla waterfalls near San Andreas Tuxtla may be part of the "land of many waters, rivers, and fountains" where Mormon had all the Nephites gather for the "last struggle" with the Lamanites. Mormon states that "here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites." It was the same place the Jaredites had come for their last, great battle, likely for the same reason. There were Jaredite fortifications already in place that could be rebuilt. What does Mormon's statement mean? Possible explanations are that, according to legend, this area was associated with ritualistic and spiritual power. It may have also been considered an entrance into the underworld. Here natural terrain could be used to form a strong, defensive stance. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 194]

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): Ceiba tree stands over 100 feet tall as a lone sentinel on a more than 2,000 foot-long, man-made ridge of dirt in a protected basin in the Tuxtla Mountains of Mexico. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 190]

 

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): Lower battle complex in a basin area of the Tuxtla Mountains of southern Mexico. Line after line of artificial defensive mounds, hills, and ridges have been discovered in this area, with artifacts dating to the times of the last battles of the Jaredites and the Nephites. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 195]

 

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): Defensive and ceremonial complex in the lower battle area of this protected basin in the Tuxtla Mountains of Mexico. If this was the place of the final battle, the Lamanites would have come from the south, which horizon is seen in the right of this picture. For a site to qualify as the last battle area, it must have massive fortification. The Nephites did not sit down at Cumorah and wait for four years for the appointed day of the battle. Out of love for his people, Mormon would surely have caused fortifications to be erected, as he had in all previous strongholds, with large heaps of earth to be thrown up, and strategies planned to defend themselves against the onslaught of the Lamanites. Sixteen centuries would not have completely hidden these fortifications. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 195]

 

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): View from the top of a strategic hill at the north end of this basin in the Tuxtla Mountains. The fog in the middle of the picture outlines a man-made ridge that rims this hill, averaging 30 to 40 feet high and running over 2,000 feet long. On the right is a giant sinkhole that measures about 500 feet across and 200 feet deep with only one natural entry. This could have been used to protect the women and children of the Nephites. The number of women and children who were killed, with the soldiers, could have easily brought the total Nephite dead to over one million. Given a defensive position like this, it is clear that the Lamanites massively outnumbered the Nephites, so the dead Lamanites likely numbered in the millions. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 196-197]

 

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): Morning light touches a strategic hill in the north center of the basin complex of the Tuxtla Mountains. From atop this hill, part of which is man-made, the two mile by two and one-half mile basin can easily be seen. Mormon might not have wanted to retreat any farther north from here because of the mighty Teotihuacani people who were militarily the most powerful group in Mesoamerica. Mormon speaks remorsefully "that there were sorceries, and witchcrafts, and magics; and the power of the evil one was wrought upon all the face of the land." This area still attracts these evils and is a world center for witchcraft. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 198]

 

Mormon 6:4 Here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites (Illustration): First light touches gnarled and weather-worn tree anchored to the side of a strategic hill in the Tuxtla Mountains of southern Mexico. . . . From internal clues in the Book of Mormon and from all that scholarship can teach us, it appears that the great and last battle of the Nephites may have taken place somewhere in these verdant mountains rather than in western New York as tradition has taught us for generations. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 203]

Geographical Theory MapMormon 6:5 All the Nephites Have Gathered to Cumorah (385 A.S.)

 

Mormon 6:6 (Types and Shadows: The Hill Cumorah and Horeb ) (Illustrations): The correlation of Mount Horeb (Mount Sinai) and its hidden treasures with a Mount Lawz near the northeastern shores of the ancient land of Midian (now Saudi Arabia) is the subject of a fascinating book entitled "The Gold of Exodus." The following are illustrations from that book:

     (a) The Path of the Exodus

     (b) Jabal al Lawz. Using the Bible as their guide, Williams and Cornuke found the visual proof they had been searching for--Jabal al Lawz was Mount Sinai.

[Howard Blum, The Gold of Exodus, pages not numbered]
 

Mormon 6:9 They did fall upon my people with the sword, and with the bow, and with the arrow, and with the ax, and with all manner of weapons of war (Illustration): Drawing of the final battle at Cumorah, A.D. 385, by Terry Rutledge. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 180]

Mormon 6:8 [The Lamanites] came to battle against us, and every soul was filled with terror (Illustration): The Nephite's Last Battle [Gary E. Smith, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 3]

 

Mormon 6:11 From the top of the hill Cumorah (Illustration): This view from the top of Cerro El Vigia looks down on the plains to the west. If this is the correct hill, Mormon and the handful of survivors with him had this same view on the morning after their climactic battle, with hundreds of thousands of the dead and dying in their view (see Mormon 6:11-15). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 211]

 

Mormon 6:11 We having survived . . . did behold . . . from the top of the hill Cumorah (Illustration): Mormon Bids Farewell to a Once Great Nation. Artist: Arnold Friberg. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #319]

 

Mormon 6:11 From the Top of the hill Cumorah (Illustration): Hill Cumorah, Manchester, New York. Photographer: George Edward Anderson. This 1907 view shows the land around the hill which, at the time of the photograph, was used predominantly for farming. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, February 1993, inside back cover]

 

Mormon 6:11-15 [The Lamanites] Had Hewn Down All [230,000 of] My People (Illustration): United States Casualties in Major Wars [Daniel H. Ludlow, A Companion to Your Study of the Book of Mormon, p. 173]

Mormon 7:9 [The Book of Mormon] is Written for the intent that ye may believe [the Bible] (Illustration) The Book of Mormon Cites Specific Biblical Events and Persons. [Robert J. Matthews, "Establishing the Truth of the Bible," in The Book of Mormon: First Nephi, The Doctrinal Foundation, pp. 195-200]

Mormon 8:1 I, Moroni, do finish the record of my father, Mormon (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mormon 8:1 Behold I, Moroni . . . have but few things to write (Illustration): Chart: "Writings of Moroni." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #21]

Mormon 8:4 I will write and hide up the records in the earth (Illustration): Stone Box from Chichen Itza. Here is one example of an American stone box dating to A.D. 650-900. Discovered at the base of the temple of Kulkulcan at Chichen Itza in Yucatan, Mexico, in the late 1800s, where it is exhibited, it measures approximately 2.5 by 2 by 2 feet, exterior. The box is carved out of one piece of stone, the rounded lid out of another. In this box were found masonry tools; other stone boxes containing jewelry and precious textiles have been found throughout Mexico and Central America. Many of them are on exhibit in the Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. (See Cheesman, "The Stone Box," Improvement Era, Oct. 1966, pp. 876-78, 900) [Paul Cheesman, "Ancient Writing on Metal Plates," The Ensign, October 1979, p. 47]

Mormon 9:31-33 Reformed Egyptian [Illustration]: Reformed Egyptian characters from the Book of Mormon (left side of each column) and the Middle East (right side of each column). [Allen H. Richardson, David E. Richardson and Anthony E. Bentley, 1000 Evidences for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Part Two-A Voice from the Dust: 500 Evidences in Support of the Book of Mormon, p. 256]

 

Mormon 9:33 If our plates had been sufficiently large we should have written in Hebrew (Illustration): Hebrew translation of 2 Nephi, Chapters 5:20 to 11:3 inclusive (about 14 and 3/4 pages of the English version). Used by permission, J.M. Sjodahl. [L.D.S. Church, Book of Mormon--1962 Seminary Edition, p. 569]