Third Nephi

 

The Lord Confirms the Covenant Way

      Alma 45 -- 3 Nephi 10


 

 

 

     3 NEPHI

 

 

3 Nephi Heading The book of Nephi, the son of Nephi, who was the son of Helaman (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

3 Nephi 1:1 Lachoneus was the chief judge (Nephite Chief Priests) [Illustration]: Nephite Chief Priests. Adapted from [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S., 1997]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 The time is at hand, and on this night shall the sign be given (Illustration): The Time is at Hand [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 5]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): The Night Before in America [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 7]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 The time is at hand, and on this night shall the sign be given (Illustration): "On the Morrow Come I into the World." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 498]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Relative positions of the sun, moon, and earth at midnight during the night of Christ's birth. This illustrates that at the time of Christ's birth the eastern hemisphere was dark while the western hemisphere was exposed to the sun. [John C. Lefgren, April Sixth, p. 27]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table 1 Birth of Christ as Observed in Palestine in l B.C. [John C. Lefgren, April Sixth, pp. 22-23]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table 2 Birth of Christ as Observed in America [John C. Lefgren, April Sixth, pp. 28-29]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table 4 Dates of Christ's Birth, Death, and Resurrection, and the Organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [John C. Lefgren, April Sixth, pp. 61-62]

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table 1: New Calendar. [Bruce Warren, Ancient America Foundation Newsletter, No. 3 December 1994, pp. 8-9]

 

(Illustration): Christ's 14 of Nisan Death Date Possibilities. [Bruce W. Warren, Blaine M. Yorgason and Harold Brown, New Evidences of Christ in Mesoamerica, 1999]

 

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table 2: Christ's Birth and Death Dates [Bruce Warren, Ancient America Foundation Newsletter, No. 3 December 1994, p. 9]

3 Nephi 1:13 On this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world (Illustration): Table VIII Summary of the Principal Events, Dates and Calendars. [Randall P. Spackman, "Introduction to Book of Mormon Chronology: The Principal Prophecies, Calendars, and Dates," F.A.R.M.S., p. 71]

 

3 Nephi 1:19 There was no darkness in all that night, but it was as light as though it was mid-day: The picture [Illustrated] which has developed thus far [from ancient native American Indian legends] indicates that a total of three brilliant orbs were involved in the spectacle. (1) The New Star, or Nanahuatzin which shone "as the sun." (2) The moon which for a time attained "equal brightness" to that of Nanahuatzin. (3) Thirdly, we have the actual sun which also had an integral role in this.

 

3 Nephi 1:21 A new star did appear: A Star of David symbol from Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico about A.D. 1000. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 173]

3 Nephi 1:21 A new star did appear according to the word (Illustration): The New Star. "And it came to pass also that a new star did appear, according to the word." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 500]

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Calendar, Astronomy, and Astrology. This sketch uses meshed gears to show how separately running calendar cycles combined to determine the changing designations of the days in the Maya calendar. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America: Visualizing Book of Mormon Life, p. 164]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Table 1: New Calendar [Bruce W. Warren, Ancient America Foundation Newsletter, No 3 December 1994, pp. 8-9]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): The 260-day Sacred Almanac (Ritual Calendar). Adapted from Fig 6. The Trecenas of the Day Count. [Munro S. Edmonson, The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical Systems, 1988, p. 15]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): The 365-day Calendar. [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Long Count Calendar: 7.17.17.17.13 1 Ben 6 Mak [Alan C. Miner, Personal Collection]

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Long Count Symbols (7.17.17.17.13). The Maya utilized a system of bars and dots counting to 20. For example: 1 dot = 1 and 1 bar = 5. With this method, they could utilize the symbols of Baktun, Katun, Tun, Uinal and Kin, represented below. [Adapted from Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, pp. 16-18]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Fig. 10a: Ce Acatl (1 Reed) Quetzalcoatl from a stone box of the Toltec horizon (A.D. 1000). Fig. 10b: Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl from a rock-carving near Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico (the Early Postclassic capital of the Toltecs. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 14]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): Figure 11: The bearded Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl or Kulkulcan from the doorway of the El Castillo temple at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico (tenth century A.D. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 15]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): The body of a serpent seems to descend the north stairs of the Maya Temple of Kukulcan at Chichen Itza, Mexico, at sunset on spring and fall equinoxes. Perhaps the stepped pyramid was deliberately oriented so the shadow cast by its northwest corner would create the phenomenon, which today attracts thousands of viewers. The Maya may have considered this a sacred appearance of Kukulcan, the Feathered Serpent. [John B. Carlson, "America's Ancient Skywatchers," in National Geographic, Vol. 177, No. 3, March 1990, p. 88]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): After 91 days elapsed beginning on September 22, we have the date of the winter solstice (December 21) when the darkness period is the longest in the year, in which the Earth performs its translation movement with respect to the Sun. In accordance with the Mayan calendar, that date is the nineteenth day in the eighth month, Mool. On December 21 (the winter solstice) the Pyramid of Kukulcan gets light on the WESTERN and SOUTHERN sides, while the northern and eastern sides are in the shadow, this being the day with the longest darkness period in the year. This phenomenon can be observed between 4:30 and 4:45 in the afternoon, indicating the translation movement of our planet around the Sun. [????, p. 29]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): After the winter solstice, then comes the spring equinox on March 21; that is when the SEVEN TRIANGLES of Light and Shadow are projected on the north face of the Pyramid. On April 6, EIGHT triangles of Light and Shadow are observed on the northern side of the Pyramid, between 5:00 and 5:30 in the afternoon, plus the lighted head of the serpent that makes up the NINTH one. This phenomenon is the fullness of the effect of Light and Shadow that is observed on the Pyramid of Kukulcan, at Chichen Itza, during the equinoctial process. [????, . . . . . . . .p. 28]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): In the summer solstice, the following can be observed: When the Sun rises, between 7:00 and 7:30 in the morning (and it reaches the ideal height) it projects its light on the northern and eastern sides, while the western and southern sides remain in shadows. The Mayas correlated the count of days between equinox and solstice with the number of steps on one side of the Pyramid (91). Thus beginning on March 21, and counting 91 days, one arrives at the first day in the month of Kuun-Ku (equivalent to June 21--the summer solstice--in the present calendar). On this day (the summer solstice) the NORTHERN and EASTERN sides of the Pyramid are lighted, this being the day with the longest daylight period in the year. This phenomenon can be observed between 7:00 and 7:30 in the morning, indicating the translation movement of the Earth regarding the Sun. [?????/, p. 29]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): To astronomers of ancient American cultures (map) the sun traveled around the earth. Observing its shifting rise on the horizon, they were able to mark time and predict the future. Thus someone looking east from the Maya site of Uxmal could create a 365-day calendar by noting the swing of sunrise from spring equinox (usually March 20) to first zenith passage some 60 days alter, to summer solstice on June 21, the sun's farthest northern reach. Moving south, the sun again hits the zenith, then the fall equinox (September 23), before its southern extreme, winter solstice (December 22). These maximum excursions laid out earth space into four parts.

     The Maya based a 584-day ritual calendar on an idealized cycle of the planet Venus: After a 236-day appearance as the morning star, shown here, it disappears for 90 days before shining in the west as the evening star for 250 days. Eight days later it is in the east again. Not until the 16th century--in Europe--would astronomers realize that the earth revolves around the sun (small diagram). Because of the 231/2-degree tilt of its axis, the earth has seasons, which are reversed in Northern and Southern Hemispheres--the June solstice signaling summer in the north and winter in the south. [John B. Carlson, "America's Ancient Skywatchers," in National Geographic, Vol. 177, No. 3, March 1990, p. 89.]

 

3 Nephi 2:8 Now the Nephites began to reckon their time from this period when the sign was given, or from the coming of Christ (Illustration): The Castillo at Chichen Itza with the spring equinox shadow (drawing by Kathryn Reese-Taylor). This temple sat at the center of time as well as space. The axis that run through the northwest and southwest corners of this pyramid are oriented toward the rising point of the sun at the summer solstice and its setting point at the winter solstice. This declaration of the four corners as solstitial points makes the pyramid a massive sun dial for the solar year.

     The balustrades along the four stairways descend in the shape of enormous Feathered Serpents, their mouths gaping at the bottom of the stairs. Cutting across the dominant four-part pattern, the main doorway of the outer temple on the summit is on the northern side, and the sanctum sanctorum of the temple on the summit opens only to the north. The northern stairway is clearly the principal sacred path: on the evenings of the vernal and autumnal equinox, the stepped terraces of this pyramid cast triangular shadows across the northeast balustrade wall, manifesting a serpentlike diamond pattern of the rattlesnake this sculpture represents. [Linda Schele, , , . . . . .Maya Cosmos, p. 156]

 

3 Nephi 3:18 The great commander of all the armies of the Nephites was . . . Gidgiddoni (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

 

3 Nephi 3:22 Horses (Illustration): A Photograph of Horse Bones in the Maya Room of the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Discovered in the caves of Loltun near the Maya ruins of Uxmal in the Yucatan Peninsula. Found at the same depth as Classic period pottery fragments (A.D. 200 to A.D. 900). [Joseph L. Allen, "Horses" in The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. II, Issue VI, p. 1]

3 Nephi 3:23 The line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation (Illustration): [According to John Sorenson] the position and nature of the Coatzacoalcos River qualifies it to have constituted "the land" that, practically and conceptually, marked the separation between the lands of Bountiful and Desolation (3 Nephi 3:23; see Alma 22:32). . . . [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 202]

 

3 Nephi 4:7 They [the Gadianton robbers] had a lamb-skin about their loins (Illustration): Figure 1. Theodore C. Foote, "The Ephod," Journal of Biblical Literature 21 (1902): 42. Figure 2. William Smith and Samuel Cheetham, A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (New York: Kraus, 1968), 2:1307. Figure 4. The Maya tree of life and its transformation into the royal apron. Linda Schele and Mary Ellen Miller, The Blood of Kings: Dynassty and Ritual in Maya Art (Fort Worth: Kimbell Art Museum, 1986), 77. Matthew B. Brown, "Girded about with a Lambskin," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6/2, 1997, pp. 135,137,142]

 

3 Nephi 5:11 And behold, I do make the record on plates which I have made with mine own hands (Illustration): Gold Disc of Chichen Itza. Controversy surrounds most of the examples of writing on metal in the New World and more study will be required to document their authenticity. This gold disc, the only completely authenticated piece of New World writing on metal, was exhumed by a 1950's expedition at Chichen Itza; it has a Mayan inscription around the edges. (Peabody Museum--Harvard University. Photograph by Hillel Burger.) Copyright Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College 1979. All rights reserved. [Paul Cheesman, "Ancient Writing on Metal Plates," The Ensign, October 1979, p. 44]

 

3 Nephi 5:11-12 I do make the record on plates which I have made with mine own hands. And behold, I am called Mormon (Illustration): Chart: "Writings of Mormon." Mormon, the chief abridger and editor of the full Book of Mormon, also added comments of his own to many of the books in that record, besides writing two books within the Book of Mormon that also bear his name (the Words of Mormon and the book of Mormon). As this chart demonstrates, his editorial commentaries, skillfully woven into the text of the primary authors, provide important explanations of human nature, the gathering of Israel, the Book of Mormon in the latter days, and the Savior's visit to the Americas. His own writings include, among other things (not all of which are listed on this chart), an autobiography and important sermons or letters on good works and infant baptism. [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., chart #20]

 

Geographical Theory Map: 3 Nephi 3:22-24 Lachoneus Gathers the Nephites Together (17th Year A.S.)

           3 Nephi 4:1 -- 5:20 Robbers Take Possession of Nephite Lands (18th -- 25th Year A.S.)

           3 Nephi 6:1 -- 8:2 The Nephites Prevail & Return to Their Lands (26th -- 32nd Year A.S.)

 

3 Nephi 6:8 There were many highways cast up, and many roads made: Maya Highways A schematic map of Maya sacbe ob (highways) which have been identified. (per Victor von Hagen - 1960) [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 192]

3 Nephi 6:8 There were many highways cast up, and many roads made, which led from city to city, and from land to land, and from place to place (Illustration): In recent years, hundreds of miles of roads have been found radiating outward from major population centers throughout much of Mesoamerica. Built-up roads (the Mayan language term was sacbe, "white road") like this remnant at the site of Labna in Yucatan were not primarily for travelers but were routes for ceremonial processions although they were used for routine transport where they were available. Mostly, however, well-worn trails served the surefooted human burden bearers. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 56]

 

3 Nephi 6:19 Lachoneus [the son of Lachoneus] did fill the seat of his father (Nephite Chief Priests) [Illustration]: Nephite Chief Priests. Adapted from [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S., 1997]

 

3 Nephi 6:20 The Redemption Which the Lord Would Make [Illustration]: Correspondence of the Atonement to the Passover. [John P. Pratt, "The Restoration of Priesthood Keys on Easter 1836 -- Part 2: Symbolism of Passover and of Elijah's Return," in The Ensign, July 1985, p. 59]

 

3 Nephi 6:28 And they did enter into a covenant . . . which was given by them of old [Illustration] Secret Covenant Verse 9 = 3 Nephi 6:28. Secret Covenant Verses 10-11 = 3 Nephi 6:29-30. [Victor L. Ludlow, "Secret Covenant Teachings of Men and the Devil," in The Book of Mormon: Helaman through 3 Nephi 8, According to Thy Word, pp. 276-278]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month (Illustration): Christ's 14 of Nisan Death Date Possibilities. [Bruce W. Warren, Blaine M. Yorgason and Harold Brown, New Evidences of Christ in Mesoamerica, Unpublished Manuscript]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month (Illustration): Figure 1. The proposed eclipse. the lunar eclipse of Dec. 29, 1 B.C. as it would have been seen from Jericho rising in the east at an altitude of 3 degrees about 20 minutes after sunset. [John P. Pratt, "Yet Another Eclipse for Herod," The Planetarian, Vol. 19, No. 4, December 1990, pp. 8-13]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm: Table 1--Mixtec New Year's Day Dates. [Bruce W. Warren, "1 Ben 6 Mak: Part Two," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 4]

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm: Table 2--The 34th Year: Great Destruction and Appearance in Bountiful, [Bruce W. Warren, "1 Ben 6 Mak: Part Two," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 5]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm: Table 1--Mixtec New Year's Day Dates. [Bruce W. Warren, "1 Ben 6 Mak: Part Two," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 4]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 In the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm: Table 2--The 34th Year: Great Destruction and Appearance in Bountiful, [Bruce W. Warren, "1 Ben 6 Mak: Part Two," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 5]

 

3 Nephi 8:5 On the fourth day of the month: (1) Mexican Calendar Stone. Facsimile drawn by Carl Nebel c. 1836 (2) The Sign Nahui-Ollin which incorporates four branches, each signifying the catastrophic end of a former epoch. [Ammon O'Brien, Seeing beyond Today with Ancient America, p. 350]

3 Nephi 8:6,8-10 A great and terrible tempest . . .fire . . . sea . . . earth (Illustration): Chart: "Destructions at the Death of Christ." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #49]

 

3 Nephi 8:9 The city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea (Illustration): Earth Plate Movements Affecting the Americas. (From the book, Exploring our Living Planet, National Geographic Society, p. 58, 1983) [Ben L. Olsen, Some Earthly Treasures of the Book of Mormon, Map 6]

3 Nephi 8:10 A great mountain (Volcanic and Seismic Activity) [Illustration]: Southeast Mexico - Guatemala Surface Geologic Map. Compiled from 1960 Mexican and 1970 Guatemalan geologic maps. [Ben L. Olsen, Some Earthly Treasures of the Book of Mormon, Map 5, Unpublished]

 

3 Nephi 8:10 A great mountain (Volcanic and Seismic Activity) [Illustration]: Earth Plate Movements Affecting the Americas. (From the book, Exploring our Living Planet, National Geographic Society, p. 58, 1983.) [Ben L. Olsen, Some Earthly Treasures of the Book of Mormon, Map 6, Unpublished]

 

3 Nephi 8:12 There was a more great and terrible destruction in the land northward (Illustration): Volcanic activity has affected many areas of Central America, including this ash-fall deposit in the Tuxtla Mountains in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Many of the flows in the region date to around A.D. 34. Back-country explorations of sites in Mesoamerica reveal human bones and pottery at the eroded base of 30- and 40-foot-thick lava flows. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 164]

 

3 Nephi 8:12 There was a more great and terrible destruction in the land northward (Illustration): Evening light touches a massive 17,295-foot volcano, Iztaccihuatl, just southeast of Mexico City. The 17,845-foot Popocateptl rises just to the south, with 18,851-foot Citlaltepetl being the highest volcano in the region to the east at Orizaba. Scores of volcanoes rim these lands, making the region unstable with frequent earthquakes and eruptions. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 165]

 

3 Nephi 8:22 There was not any light seen . . . for so great were the mists of darkness which were upon the face of the land (Illustration): This dramatic photograph shows the first stage of the 1974 eruption of the Volcan de Fuego, in Guatemala. Simultaneous eruptions from several volcanoes could have produced the "thick darkness" (3 Nephi 8:20) mentioned by the Nephite reporters. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 204]

 

3 Nephi 8:23 Because of the darkness and the great destruction which had come upon them (Illustration): Ash from volcanoes could have smothered crops, animals, and humans over wide areas. The type of desolation resulting is illustrated by this scene near the volcano El Chichon in highland Chiapas in 1982.196 [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 204]

 

3 Nephi 8:25 Buried up in that great city Moronihah (Illustration): The preColumbian city of Cuicuilco, Mexico [Figure 1] was buried under a lava flow [Figure 2]; The volcanic mountain of Paricutin, in western Mexico began as a farmer was plowing his field one day in 1943, quickly attaining a height of 8,200 feet! [Michael and June Hobby, Proofs of the Book of Mormon, pp.8-9]

 

Geographical Theory Map: 3 Nephi 8:5-23 The Great Destruction (34 A.S.)

 

3 Nephi 9:3 Behold, that great city . . . have I burned with fire (Illustration): Golden light touches one of the restored buildings of Chiapa de Corzo which was anciently one of the largest cities in the Chiapas depression of Mexico. Around the time of the crucifixion, important buildings in this city burned. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 185]

 

3 Nephi 9:3 Behold, that great city Zarahemla have I burned with fire (Illustration): Morning light touches simply Mayan huts and the edge of the Guatemalan jungle between Chisec and Playa Grande. These huts may be similar to the dwelling places of the Nephites and may explain why Nephite cities could be burned to the ground and then be rebuilt quite rapidly. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 178-179]

 

3 Nephi 9:7 The city of Jerusalem [have I caused to be sunk] . . . and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof (Illustration): [According to John Sorenson] the leading geographical correlation of Book of Mormon lands with the modern map puts the city of Jerusalem, built by the Lamanites and Nephite dissenters (see Alma 21:2), at this location in southern Guatemala, near the village of Santiago Atitlan.203 Third Nephi 9:7 reports that the city was destroyed by waters that did "come up in the stead thereof." Lake Atitlan is prone to sharp rises and falls in its level due to the volcanic geology of its environs. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 205]

 

3 Nephi 9:8 All these have I caused to be . . . buried up in the depths of the earth (Illustration): Lava flow overlaying the ruins of Copilco. The stone construction of the ruins comes up to the position indicated by David Palmer's left hand. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 104]

 

3 Nephi 9:8 All these have I caused to be . . . buried up in the depths of the earth (Illustration): Stela C from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz. It is on display in the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. The upper part of the monument was discovered more recently and is displayed in the town of Tres Zapotes. This monument recorded a date of 32 B.C. and appears to be from the period of cultural development found below the thick layer of volcanic ash that fell on Tres Zapotes. Chase has indicated that the eruption occurred in late spring when prevailing winds would have carried the ash from volcano San Martin over Tres Zapotes. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 102]

 

3 Nephi 9:15 I created the heavens and the earth, and all things that in them are. I was with the Father from the beginning (Illustration): Approximate Comparisons of Old and New Worlds. [T.J. O'Brien, Fair Gods and Feathered Serpents, p. 162]

 

3 Nephi 9:15 Behold, I am Jesus Christ the Son of God. I created the heavens and the earth (Illustration): Christ Is the Creator. "Behold, I am Jesus Christ the son of God. I created the heavens and the earth, and all things that in them are." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 521]

 

3 Nephi 10:9 The darkness dispersed . . . and the earth ceased to tremble (Illustration): Dark clouds block the light of the afternoon sun as a storm builds around Lake Atitlan in Guatemala. . . . Apparently during the three days of darkness, there were numerous aftershocks, for, in the morning, as the darkness began to disperse, "the rocks did cease to rend, and the dreadful groanings did cease." [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 167]

 

Geographical Theory Map: 3 Nephi 9:1 -- 10:9 Many Cities Destroyed (34 A.S.)

3 Nephi 10:18 In the ending of the thirty and fourth year (Illustration): Calendar Correlations from a Mesoamerican Perspective Relating to Christ's Visit to the Americas. [Bruce W. Warren, Blaine M. Yorgason, Harold Brown, New Evidences of Christ in Mesoamerica, Unpublished Manuscript]

 

3 Nephi 11:1 (The Sermon at the Temple) [Illustration]: 47 Ritual Covenant Elements [John W. Welch, "Christ at the Nephite Temple," in Teachings of the Book of Mormon, Semester 4, pp. 119-163; see also John W. Welch, The Sermon at the Temple, F.A.R.M.S., pp. 34-83]

 

3 Nephi 11:3,5 They heard a voice as if it came out of heaven . . . and their eyes were towards the sound thereof (Illustration): "And Their Eyes Were towards the Sound Thereof." Artist: Harold I. Hopkinson. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, September 1991, inside front cover]

 

3 Nephi 11:8 They saw a Man descending out of heaven (Illustration): Fig. 41: Bird and serpent symbol of the sky god with stars on the body of the serpent. Scene from a Maya codex. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 151]

 

3 Nephi 11:8 They saw a man descending out of heaven (Illustration): Christ Appears to the Nephites. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #315]

 

3 Nephi 11:8 They saw a man descending out of heaven (Illustration): Christ Descending [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 7]

 

3 Nephi 11:8 They saw a Man descending out of heaven (Illustration): "Behold, I am Jesus Christ." Artist: Gary L. Kapp. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, May 1997, front and back cover]

 

3 Nephi 11:9 He stretched forth his hand . . . saying: Behold, I am Jesus Christ (Illustration): The Book of Mormon Testifies of Jesus Christ. Artist: Greg Olsen [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, April 1997, pp. 4-5, also back cover]

 

3 Nephi 11:10 Behold, I am Jesus Christ, whom the prophets testified shall come into the world (Illustration): Jesus Christ Visits the Americas. Artist: John Scott [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, March 1986, p. 2] [See also The Ensign, January 1997, pp. 4-5]

 

3 Nephi 11:11 Behold, I am the light and the life of the world (Illustration): The Quetzal Bird] [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 160]

 

3 Nephi 11:13 The Lord spake unto them [at the temple] (Illustration): Christ at the Temple [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 6]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me . . . that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am . . . the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Figure 1: Sculpture of Itzamna, lord of sky and earth, with accompanying line drawing. [Steven E. Jones, Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ's Visit in Ancient America," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 2]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me . . . that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am . . . the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Figure 3 a-d: Figures 3a and 3b are painted capstones from a Maya temple in the Yucatan Peninsula, of which figures 3c and 3d are line drawings. H. E. D. Pollock and W. R. Bullard, Jr., Monographs and Papers in Maya Archaeology I, 1970, p. 31. Line drawings by Clifford Dunston. [Steven E. Jones, Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ's Visit in Ancient America," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 3]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me . . . that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am . . . the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Figure 7 (a) Photograph taken by David E. Jones of a stone carving at Yaxchilan; (b) Drawing by Clifford Dunston. [Steven E. Jones, Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ's Visit in Ancient America," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 6]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me . . . that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am . . . the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Figure 10: Stela 3 from Piedras Negras, Guatemala. These are a few of the many examples of marked hand iconography in the Maya hieroglyphics. (J. Marcus, Mesoamerican Writing Systems, 1992, p. 348) [Steven E. Jones, "Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ's Visit in Ancient America," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, p. 14]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me . . . that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am . . . the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Figure 11: Maya glyphs representing "the god of the seventh day." [Steven E. Jones, Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ's Visit in Ancient America," in Jace Willard ed. The Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Volume II, Issue III. Orem: Book of Mormon Tours, 1999, pp. 2-3, 11, 14]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 Arise and come forth unto me (Illustration): Jesus Teaching in the Western Hemisphere. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #316]

 

3 Nephi 11:14 I am the God of Israel and the God of the whole earth (Illustration): Old-World and New-World Names of the Messiah. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, pp. 22-24]

 

3 Nephi 11:15 [They] thrust their hands into his side, and did feel the prints of the nails in his hands and in his feet (Illustration): That Ye May Know. "The multitude went forth, and thrust their hands into his side, and did feel the prints of the nails in his hands and in his feet." Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 526]

 

3 Nephi 12:1 Now the number of them who had been called . . . was twelve (Illustration): Christ Ordaining the Twelve. Jesus Christ called and ordained twelve Apostles in America, just as He had done in Israel. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 529]

 

3 Nephi 12:30 Take up your cross (Illustration): Ancient American Crosses. (Above) This carving from lintel 2 at Yaxchilan shows that crosses had ceremonial significance to the ancient Americans. Many archaeologists call the crosses (left & right) the Tree of Life. From what we know of the Book of Mormon that makes little difference. The hand-held crosses (above) are obviously not trees. (Below) The top of this tomb in Oaxaca has been removed demonstrating another of the many uses of the cross in ancient America. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 210]

 

3 Nephi 15:17 Other sheep I have . . . and they shall hear my voice (Illustration): The Trail of the Prophet. A graphic illustration of the many sites in the Americas from which emanate legends of the White God. [L. Taylor Hanson, He Walked the Americas, pp. 196-197]

 

3 Nephi 15:24 Ye have both heard my voice, and seen me, and ye are my sheep (Illustration): Locations Visited by the Bearded, White Mystery Man. [T.J. O'Brien, Fair Gods and Feathered Serpents, p. 30]

     

3 Nephi 15:24 Ye have both heard my voice, and seen me, and ye are my sheep (Illustration): Representations of the Bearded White God in Mesoamerica. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 196]

 

3 Nephi 16:3 There shall be one fold and one shepherd (Illustration): The Lost Lamb. "There shall be one fold and one shepherd." Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 538]

 

3 Nephi 17:7 Bring them hither and I will heal them (Illustration): Jesus Healing the Nephites. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #317]

 

3 Nephi 17:9 [Christ] did heal them every one as they were brought forth unto him (Illustration): Christ in America [Gary Kapp, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 1]

 

3 Nephi 17:9 He did heal them every one as they were brought forth unto him (Illustration): Christ Healing the People in America. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, April 1994, front cover]

 

3 Nephi 17:9 He did heal every one as they were brought forth unto him (Illustration): Christ Healing the Sick. "Have ye any that are lame, or blind, or halt, or maimed, or leprous, or that are withered, or that are deaf, or that are afflicted in any manner? Bring them hither and I will heal them." Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 541]

 

3 Nephi 17:12 They brought their little children and set them down upon the ground round about him (Illustration): Christ with Children [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 6]

 

3 Nephi 17:12 They brought their little children and set them down upon the ground round about him, and Jesus stood in the midst (Illustration): Christ Appears to the Nephites. Artist: Ron Crosby. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, February 1978, pp. 52-53]

 

3 Nephi 17:17 We heard him pray for us unto the Father (Illustration): The Resurrected Lord Prays with Nephites at Bountiful. Artist: Ted Henninger. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, April 1982, inside front cover]

 

3 Nephi 17:21 He took their little children, one by one, and blessed them (Illustration): Behold Your Little Ones. Artist: Del Parson. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 543]

3 Nephi 17:23 He spake unto the multitude, and said unto them: Behold your little ones: Behold Your Little Ones. Artist David Lindsley. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, February 1988, p. 13]

 

3 Nephi 17:24 Angels . . . came down and encircled those little ones about (Illustration): Christ in America [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 6]

 

3 Nephi 18:3 He took the bread and brake and blessed it (Illustration): That Ye Do Always. Jesus institutes the sacrament among His disciples in America. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 545]

3 Nephi 19:4 Now these were the names of the disciples whom Jesus had chosen (Illustration): Christ Calls the Twelve [Gary Kapp, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 2]

 

3 Nephi 19:4 [Nephi's] brother whom he had raised from the dead, whose name was Timothy (Illustration): Nephi Raises Timothy [Steven Lloyd Neal, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 5]

 

3 Nephi 19:27 [He] went a little way off and bowed himself to the earth (Illustration): Christ Praying for the Nephites. "Jesus departed out of the midst of them, and went a little way off from them and bowed himself to the earth." Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 550]

3 Nephi 19:34 So great and marvelous were the words which he prayed that they cannot be written (Illustration): "Words That Cannot Be Written." Artist: Gary L. Kapp. Courtesy of David Larsen. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Ensign, January 2000, Front cover]

3 Nephi 20:3 He brake bread and blessed it, and gave it to his disciples to eat (Illustration) "That Ye Do Always Remember Me." Artist: Gary L. Kapp [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, Front and back cover, November 1998]

 

3 Nephi 20:10 -- 23:1 (Jesus' Covenant People Discourse--Chiastic Outline) [Illustration]: Jesus' Covenant People Discourse--A Chiastic Outline. [Victor L. Ludlow, "Jesus' Covenant People Discourse," handout]

 

3 Nephi 20:10--23:1 (Jesus' Discourses) [Illustration]: Jesus' First Discourse [Avraham Gileadi, The Last Days: Types and Shadows from the Bible and the Book of Mormon, p. 89]

 

3 Nephi 20:10--23:1 (Jesus' Discourses) [Illustration]: Jesus' Second Discourse [Avraham Gileadi, The Last Days: Types and Shadows from the Bible and the Book of Mormon, p. 92]

 

3 Nephi 20:12 Covenant (Illustration): (Figure 1) Covenant = karat b'rith "to cut a bond" (Figure 2) "Covenant" Citations in the Book of Mormon (Figure 3) "Covenant" Citations in the Book of Mormon--Number of Citations by Section (Figure 4) "Covenant Citations in the Book of Mormon--Number of Citations by Spokesman. [Victor L. Ludlow, "The Covenant Teachings of the Book of Mormon," F.A.R.M.S.]

 

3 Nephi 20:22 The power of heaven shall be in the midst of this people (Illustration): The Guatemala City Temple. Guatemala City Temple Presidency and Matrons 1984. (Front row L-R: Mae Flake, 2nd Assistant--Carmen O'Donnal, Matron--Ruth Skousen, 1st Assistant. (Back row L-R: President Conde, President O'Donnal and President Skousen. [John O'Donnal, Pioneer in Guatemala: The Personal History of John Forres O'Donnal, Including the History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Guatemala, pp. 335, 337]

 

3 Nephi 22:9 Noah (Illustration): Chart: A Latter-Day Saint View of Noah. [Joseph B. Romney, "Noah the Great Preacher of Righteousness," in The Ensign, February 1998, p. 24]

 

3 Nephi 22:9 I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth (Illustration): Noah's Preaching Scorned. Artist: Harry Anderson. [Joseph B. Romney, "Noah the Great Preacher of Righteousness," in The Ensign, February 1998, p. 23]

 

3 Nephi 22:9 I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth (Illustration): Noah After the Deluge. Artist: Frederic Henrischopin [Joseph B. Romney, "Noah the Great Preacher of Righteousness," in The Ensign, February 1998, p. 26]

 

3 Nephi 23:7-13 Bring forth the record which ye have kept (Illustration): Bring Forth the Record. Artist: Robert Barrett. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, April 1985, front and back cover]

 

3 Nephi 23:7 [Jesus] said unto Nephi: Bring forth the record which ye have kept (Illustration): Bring the Record [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 6]

 

3 Nephi 23:7 Bring forth the record which ye have kept (Illustration): Bring Forth the Record. Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 562]

 

3 Nephi 23:7 Bring forth the record which ye have kept (Illustration): Christ Reviewing the Record. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 570]

 

3 Nephi 23:14 Jesus . . . expounded all the scriptures in one which they had written (Illustration): Table 3: Passages Quoted by Jesus in 3 Nephi. [John Gee, "'Choose the Things That Please Me': On the Selection of the Isaiah Sections in the Book of Mormon," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 82]

3 Nephi 24:1 Thus said the Father unto Malachi -- Behold, I will send my messenger (Illustration): Realignment Intervals. [John P. Pratt, "The Restoration of Priesthood Keys on Easter 1836 -- Part 2: Symbolism of Passover and of Elijah's Return," in The Ensign, July 1985, p. 60]

 

3 Nephi 25:4 Horeb (Illustration): (1) The Sinai Peninsula (2) The granite summit of Jebel Musa, the most probable location of Mt. Sinai. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, p. 1460]

 

3 Nephi 26:12 I, Mormon, do write the things which have been commanded me of the Lord (Illustration): Chart: "The Contents of the Book of Mormon Were Divinely Controlled." [Raymond C. Treat, "What is in the Book of Mormon is There for a Purpose," in Recent Book of Mormon Developments, Vol. 2, p. 172]

 

3 Nephi 27:14 My father sent me that I might be lifted up upon the cross (Illustration): Ancient Mesoamerican crosses: No. 1 is a Serpent Cross; No. 2, Cross shown on Quetzalcoatl's tunic; No. 3, Cross from Mayapan, Yucatan; No. 4, Cross of Teotihuacan (near Mexico City) with Life symbol at the top; No. 5, Cross from the tablet of the Foliated Cross temple at Palenque, Chiapas; No. 6, Cross and Tree of Life from Yaxchilan, Guatemala, with serpent-like tail feathers extending from the tail of the bird at the top of the cross; No. 7, Tree and cross from the tablet of the Cross at Palenque, Chiapas. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, p. 80]

 

3 Nephi 27:14 My Father sent me that I might be lifted upon the cross (Illustration): Symbols of the Messiah Common to Both the Old World and the New World. [Bruce W. Warren and Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient America, pp. 25-26]

 

3 Nephi 28:7 More blessed are ye, for ye shall never taste of death (Illustration): Christ with the Three Nephites. Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 572]