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Mosiah

 

 

Out of Bondage through Covenants

      Jarom -- Mosiah


 

 

 

 

 

     MOSIAH

 

 

Book of Mosiah Title The Book of Mosiah (Illustration): A photocopy of the Printer's Manuscript showing the changes to the title of the Book of Mosiah. ["Printer's Manuscript," Library-Archives, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, The Auditorium, Independence]

 

Mosiah 1:2 And it came to pass (Illustration): Glyph--"And then it came to pass." [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, pp. 31-33]

 

Mosiah 1:2 And it came to pass (Illustration): The breakdown of the Maya glyph UTCHI--"and it came to pass." [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 32]

Mosiah 1:4 Having been taught in the language of the Egyptians therefore he could read these engravings (Illustration): Anthon Transcript and Egyptian Demotic compared, From Language of the Book of Mormon, by I.A. Smith [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 64]

 

Mosiah 1:6 O my sons, I would that ye should remember that these sayings are true, and also that these records are true (Illustration): A Maya father exhorts a son thirteen hundred years ago much as Benjamin did his sons nine hundred years before that (see Mosiah 1:2-8). Notice what appears to be a book next to the young man, which reminds us of Benjamin's emphasis to his princes on the importance and significance of mastering the records. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 75]

Mosiah 1:16 He gave him charge concerning the . . . plates of brass; and also the plates of Nephi, and also the sword of Laban, and the ball or director (Illustration): Engraving of Charles V, by Pieter Balten, 1580. It is clear by comparing numerous portraits of this and other rulers that what is important is not the exact likeness of the ruler, but rather that the symbols of royalty, the sword and orb, be present so that there is no question as to the status of the person portrayed. Iconographic legibility was far more of a concern than photographic realism. [Gordon C. Thomasson, "Mosiah: The Complex Symbolism and Symbolic Complex of Kingship in the Book of Mormon," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Spring 1993, F.A.R.M.S., p. 27]

 

Mosiah 2-5 (Benjamin's Speech) [Illustration]: "Twenty Eight Phases Unique to King Benjamin's Speech." [Cory Chivers and John W. Welch, "Exact Words and Phrases in Benjamin's Speech in the Old Testament, New Testament, Book of Mormon and Other LDS Scriptures," unpublished FARMS research project, 1988]

Mosiah 2-5 (Benjamin's Speech as a Farewell Address) [Illustration]: Kurz's Attributes of Typical Ancient Farewell Addresses, Table 1. Farewell Speeches in the Book of Mormon. [John W. Welch and Daryl R. Hague, Benjamin's Sermon as a Traditional Ancient Farewell Address," in King Benjamin's Speech: "That Ye May Learn Wisdom," pp. 105]

 

Mosiah 2-5 (Benjamin's Speech as a Farewell Address) [Illustration]: Kurz's Attributes of Typical Ancient Farewell Addresses, Table 2. Farewell Speeches in the Old Testament and Benjamin's Speech. [John W. Welch and Daryl R. Hague, Benjamin's Sermon as a Traditional Ancient Farewell Address," in King Benjamin's Speech: "That Ye May Learn Wisdom," pp. 106]

 

Mosiah 2-4 (Benjamin's Farewell Speech) [Illustration]: Chart: Elements Found in Great Farewell Addresses [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S.]

Mosiah 2:7 He [king Benjamin] caused a tower to be erected (Illustration): King Benjamin Preaches to the Nephites. King Benjamin "caused a tower to be erected, that thereby his people might hear the words which he should speak unto them." Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 191]

Mosiah 2:7 He [king Benjamin] caused a tower to be erected (Illustration): King Benjamin Addresses His People. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #307]

Mosiah 3:7 Blood cometh from every pore (the location of the garden of Gethsemane at the time of Christ): Map of Jerusalem during the Time of Christ. [Church Educational System, The Life and Teachings of Jesus & his Apostles, p. 209]

 

Mosiah 3:7 Blood cometh from every pore (the location of the garden of Gethsemane at the time of Christ): Map of Jerusalem at the Time of Herod. [Church Educational System, Old Testament Student Manual 1 Kings-Malachi, Introductory pages]

Mosiah 3:14 [The Lord] appointed unto them a law, even the law of Moses (Illustration): Chart: Legal Traditions Related to Biblical Law. [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S.]

Mosiah 5:10-12 (Chiastic Form) [Illustration): The example here compares a chiasm in the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Quiche Maya, with a passage from the Book of Mormon. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 177]

Mosiah 6:3 [King Benjamin] consecrated his son Mosiah to be a ruler and a king over his people (Illustration): King Benjamin Ordaining Mosiah. King Benjamin "consecrated his son Mosiah to be a ruler and a king over his people." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 203]

 

Mosiah 6:3 [King Benjamin] consecrated his son Mosiah to be a ruler and a king over his people (Illustration): King Benjamin Confers the Kingdom on Mosiah. After delivering a great address on following the ways of God to his people in Zarahemla, King Benjamin "consecrated his son Mosiah to be a ruler and a king over his people, and [gave] him all the charges concerning the kingdom." (Mosiah 6:3) Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, February 2000, Inside back cover]

 

Mosiah 6:3 King Benjamin had . . . given him [Mosiah2] all the charges concerning the kingdom (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 6:4 Mosiah began to reign in his father's [Benjamin's] stead (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

Mosiah 7:5 They came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom (Illustration): The valley seen here, where Guatemala City lies, has been identified by a number of students of Book of Mormon geography as the immediate land of Nephi, the first area settled by Nephi, and his party after separating from the Lamanite faction. [According to John Sorenson] the view from the vantage point of the photographer of this scene is the same as that Ammon1 and his group would have had when they came into the land and paused "at a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom" (Mosiah 7:5). From there "they went down into the land of Nephi," where they met King Limhi (Mosiah 7:6). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 195]

 

Mosiah 7:5 They came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom (Illustration): Looking to the north across the ruins at Mixco Viejo in Guatemala towards hills where ruins have also been discovered. This is much like the description of the view from the Land of Nephi of Shemlon and Shilom in the Book of Mormon. [F. Richard Hauck, "In Search of the Land of Nephi," in This People, Fall 1994, p. 53. (Photography by Scot Facer Proctor)]

 

Mosiah 8:7 43 Men had been sent to find Zarahemla. (Illustration): Journeys indicating distances. [John L. Sorenson].

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 8:7; 21:25 43 Men Had Been Sent to Find Zarahemla (Year 479-480)

Mosiah 8:8 Having traveled in a land among many waters (Illustration): Map 4 Prior to the landing of the Spaniards, the States of Vera Cruz and Tabasco were known as Tlapalco-"Flooded or Wet Lands" [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 67]

 

Mosiah 8:8 A land among many waters (Illustration): Tabasco & Campeche (The land of many waters)] [Merrill Oaks, "Some perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography," Slide #97]

Mosiah 9 Heading The Record of Zeniff (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 9 Chapter Heading Zeniff leads a group from Zarahemla (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 9:1-2 (Omni 1:27) Zeniff Is Part of a Failed Bid to Return to Lehi-Nephi (Year 407)

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 9:3-13 (Omni 1:29-30) Zeniff Returns from Zarahemla to Lehi-Nephi (Year 407)

 

Mosiah 9:8 We began to . . . repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city (Illustration): "La Culebra" (the snake) is a winding aqueduct system built by the Spanish "Conquistadores" (conquerors) in the 1500's. The foundation they built it on was a Preclassic (Nephite time-period) city wall. We will pass through one of the narrow arches soon after leaving the airport on our way to our hotel, the Conquistador Ramada. [Clate Mask, personal Book of Mormon Lands Tour photos and notes]

 

Mosiah 9:9 We began to till the ground . . . with seeds of corn (Illustration): Corn in the Codex Borbonicus. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 24]

 

Mosiah 9:9 We began to till the ground . . . with seeds of corn (Illustration): Four scenes from Sahagun's Florentine Codex display the sequence of Aztec maize cultivation and harvest. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 35]

Mosiah 9:9 We began to till the ground . . . with seeds of corn (Illustration): Three diagrammatic kernel distributions that are possible on live maize or on sculpted "ears." [Karl L. Johannessen and Anne Z. Parker, "Maize Ears Sculpted in 12th and 13th Century A.D. India as Indicators of Pre-Columbian Diffusion." Reprinted by F.A.R.M.S. from Economic Botany 43/2 (1989): 164-80.]

 

Mosiah 9:9 We began to till the ground . . . with seeds of corn (Illustration): Carefully cultured corn growing in the highlands of Guatemala. Corn or maize was a staple in the diet of the Nephites. "Although good soil and growing conditions particularly favored a few areas, most Mesoamerican agriculture was not highly productive. Vast areas are mountainous, frost threatened, or heavily forested." Photograph [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 148]

Mosiah 9:9 We began to till the ground . . . with seeds of wheat (Illustration): Beautiful golden wheat, stacked and ready for the threshing floor, is harvested by hand in the mountains of Guatemala. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 123]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 9:14--11:1 The Lamanites Invade Shilom on the North & South (Year 419)

Mosiah 10:22 I [Zeniff] . . . did confer the kingdom upon one of my sons [Noah] (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

 

Mosiah 11:1 Zeniff conferred the kingdom upon Noah (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 11:3 Noah builds two towers to overlook Shemlon. (Illustration) Proposed details in the Land of Nephi (Valley of Guatemala)

 

Geographical Theory Map Mosiah 9:14--11:1 The Lamanites Invade Shilom on the North & Soutp: h (Year 419)

Mosiah 11:9 And [king Noah] also built him . . . a throne (Illustration): Maya and other rulers made a big show of their sanctity and power by sitting on ornate thrones like that shown with this Late Classic figurine. However, the newly deciphered inscriptions make clear that their power constantly had to be justified in the eyes of the public. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 111]

Mosiah 11:12 A tower near the temple (Illustration): The Palenque palace tower that is near the temple. Photograph [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 365]

Mosiah 11:12 He could stand upon the top [of the tower] and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon (Illustration): This view is of the lower portion of the Valley of Guatemala. [According to John Sorenson] it meets the textual requirements to have been the land of Shilom of the Nephites. This section occupies several square miles and lies only about ten miles from Nephi, thought to have been at Kaminaljuyu. At the city of Nephi, King Noah climbed on a tower or pyramid where he could "overlook the land of Shilom" (Mosiah 11:12). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 195]

 

Mosiah 11:12 He could stand upon the top [of the tower] and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon (Illustration): [According to John Sorenson] the near shore of Lake Amatitlan seen in this photograph qualifies as the Lamanite land of Shemlon. What could be the land of Shilom lies above the bluffs across the lake. According to Mosiah chapters 11 and 19 through 22, Lamanite forces consistently went "up" (roughly five hundred feet in elevation here) from Shemlon through Shilom to attack Nephi. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 198]

Mosiah 11:13 A great tower (Illustration): This unique tower was part of the palace at Palenque, Mexico. Archaeologists and astronomers believe it was constructed so Mayan royalty could observe the sunlight falling into the Temple of Inscriptions at winter solstice. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 180]

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 11:3--16:15 Noah Builds Two Towers to Overlook Shemlon (Year 442-451)

Mosiah 11:14 He spent his time in riotous living with his wives and his concubines (Illustration): A series of figurings made in the Gulf Coast area of the Mexican state of Campeche and dating to about A.D. 700 shows this "dirty-old-man" theme. The man and woman are thought to represent a particular god and goddess, but the behavior pictured suggests practices open to the top social rank, such as the priests of Noah and their "harlots" (Mosiah 11:14). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 80]

 

Mosiah 11:15 He made wine-presses, and made wine in abundance (Illustration): The most popular fermented drink in modern times is pulque, made from fermented juice of the agave plant. In central Mexico its use was very ancient, although other wines were also made. Incidentally, the Spaniards spoke of the plantings of the agave cactus as vineyards (recalling Mosiah 11:15).138 [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 45]

 

Mosiah 12:6 I shall send forth hail . . . the east wind; and insects . . . to devour their grain (Illustration): Chart: "Did Abinadi Prophesy against King Noah on Pentecost?" [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #124]

Mosiah 12:9 They took him [Abinadi] and carried him bound before the king (Illustration): Abinadi the Martyr. Artist: Stuart Heimdal. [Paul R. Cheesman, Great Leaders of the Book of Mormon, p. 61]

Mosiah 12:9-10 [Abinadi] has prophesied evil concerning thy people . . . and he also prophesieth evil concerning thy life (Illustration): Legal Charges Brought Against Abinadi. [Todd Parker, "Abinadi: The Man and the Message (Part 1)," F.A.R.M.S., Figure 5]

Mosiah 12:11-12 Thou shalt be as a stalk, even as a dry stalk (Illustration): The parallels between king Jeroboam and king Noah. [Alan Goff, "Uncritical Theory and Thin Description: The Resistance to History," in Review of Books on the Book of Mormon, Vol. 7, Num. 1, F.A.R.M.S., 1995, pp. 201-202]

 

Mosiah 12:19 He [Abinadi] answered them boldly, and withstood all their questions (Illustration): Abinadi before King Noah. Artist: Arnold Friberg. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #308]

 

Mosiah 14:2 As a tender plant (Illustration): Tender plant at Wadi Qelt, the Judean desert. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 89]

Mosiah 14:5 He was bruised for our iniquities (Illustration): The phrase "he was bruised for our iniquities" is more correctly rendered "he was crushed (Hebrew daka') for our iniquities." Jesus Christ was crushed in the Garden of Gethsemane. The word Gethsemane (Hebrew Gath Shemen ) itself signifies "oil press," Just as olives are crushed at an olive press to render pure olive oil, so the Anointed One was crushed to sanctify mankind. He suffered so mightily in the Garden of Gethsemane that he bled from every pore (Luke 22:44; Mosiah 3:7; D&C 19:18). Occasionally, freshly crushed olive oil is reddish in color., as shown in this photograph in which oil pours over white rock. Photograph by Matthew J. Grey. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 91]

 

Mosiah 14:5 He was bruised for our iniquities (Illustration): The phrase "he was bruised for our iniquities" is more correctly rendered "he was crushed (Hebrew daka') for our iniquities." Above: Olive press, Jerusalem Center for Near Eastern Studies. Olive oil runs into the stone basin near the top half of the press. Olive oil production consisted of two stages: crushing and pressing. Olives were first placed in a stone basin and then crushed by a huge stone wheel set on end that rolled over the olives. The crushed olives were removed from the stone basin and placed in baskets designed especially for olive presses. A great beam with large stones secured at one end weighed down upon the baskets filled with crushed olives. From the baskets, pure olive oil flowed down into a basin. The olive oil was then placed in jars for immediate storage. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 91]

 

Mosiah 14:5 He was wounded for our transgressions (Illustration): Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would be wounded, or pierced, "for our transgression,," referring to Christ's crucifixion. This photo is of a "heel bone pierced by an iron nail, discovered in the tomb of a Jew named Yehahanan son of Hagkol . . . This intriguing find, dating back some 2,000 years, is the only archaeological evidence in the world for the practice of crucifixion" (In the Path of Christianity, Israel Museum [pamphlet, 2000]). Photograph Zev Radovan. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 90]

 

Mosiah 14:6 All we like sheep have gone astray (Illustration): Shepherd's Fields, near Bethlehem. While foraging for food, sheep occasionally stray from the flock and from their shepherd. The mortal Jesus approached a group of his followers and "was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things" (Mark 6:34). Photograph by Carrilyn Clarkson. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 92]

Mosiah 14:7 As a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth (Illustration): A shepherd prepares to shear his sheep, Bethany. A sheepshearer uses special shears to cut the wool from sheep. Apparent from the scripture, the sheep's owners or their workers sheared their sheep rather than contracting that work out to others. Photograph by Tana and Mac Graham. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 93]

Mosiah 14:9 He made his grave . . . with the rich in his death (Illustration): Garden Tomb, east Jerusalem. In 1883, British General Charles Gordon suggested that the Garden Tomb area in east Jerusalem was a possible site for Christ's crucifixion and resurrection. Since that time numerous members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as many other Christians, have visited and reverenced the area as a sacred site. Photograph by Richard Nowitz. [Donald W. Parry, Visualizing Isaiah, p. 94]

Mosiah 15:1 I would that ye should understand that God himself shall come down among the children of men, and shall redeem his people (Illustration): Isaiah's Vision of Christ [Robert T. Barrett, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 8]

 

Mosiah 15:1 I would that ye should understand (Illustration): "Outlines of Passages Quoting Isaiah," [John Gee, "Choose the Things That Please Me": On the Selection of the Isaiah Sections in the Book of Mormon," in Isaiah in the Book of Mormon, p. 76]

   

Mosiah 15:7 He shall be led, crucified, and slain [Illustration]: Figure 1. Mesoamerican crosses: No. 1 is a serpent cross; No. 2, cross shown on Quetzalcoatl's tunic; No. 3, cross from Mayapan, Yucatan; No. 4, cross of Teotihuacan (near Mexico City) with Symbol of Life at the top; No. 5, cross from the tablet of the Foliated Cross Temple at Palenque, Chiapas; No. 6, cross and Tree of Life from Yaxchilan, Guatemala, with serpent-like tail feathers extending from the tail of the bird at the top of the cross; No. 7, tree and cross from the Tablet of the Cross at Palenque, Chiapas. [Allen H. Richardson, David E. Richardson and Anthony E. Bentley, 1000 Evidences for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Part Two-A Voice from the Dust: 500 Evidences in Support of the Book of Mormon, p. 57]

 

Mosiah 17:2 There was one among them whose name was Alma (Illustration): A letter of Bar Kokhba (approx. A.D. 130) which displays the name Alma. [Paul Y. Hoskisson, "Alma as a Hebrew Name," in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 7/1, November 1998, p. 73]

 

Mosiah 17:13 They took him and bound him, and scourged his skin with faggots, yea, even unto death (Illustration): Abinadi at the Stake. King Noah and his wicked priests burn Abinadi at the stake because he will not take back the words that he has spoken. Artist: Ronald K. Crosby. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 230]

 

Mosiah 17:13 They took him and bound him (Illustration): This unusual method of confinement among the Maya could recall the situation of Abinadi, the Book of Mormon prophet who was slain by burning. Perhaps he was restrained like this when "they took him and bound him, and scourged his skin with faggots" (Mosiah 17:13). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 116]

 

Mosiah 17:13 They took him and bound him, and scourged his skin with faggots, year, even unto death (Illustration): Abinadi Seals His Testimony. Artist: Ronald K. Crosby [Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Ensign, March 1996, inside front cover] [See also The Ensign, April 1992, p. 31]

 

Mosiah 17:13 They . . . scourged his skin with faggots (Illustration): Fig. 1. Aztec artist's depiction of a youthful miscreant being scourged with what are described as "burning firebrands." Courtesy of Bodeleian Library. [Brant Gardner, "Scourging with Faggots," FARMS Update in Insights, No. 148, vol. 21, 2001, p. 3]

 

Mosiah 17:13 They . . . scourged his skin with faggots (Illustration): Fig 2. In Aztec society a common form of punishment was to beat malefactors with sticks or cudgels. Illustrations from the Florentine Codex, from top: punishment of an immoral merchant, judgment and execution of an adulterer, and a noblewoman who corrects and punishes. [Brant Gardner, "Scourging with Faggots," FARMS Update in Insights, No. 148, vol. 21, 2001, p. 4]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 17:1--18:29 Alma Flees to a Place Called Mormon (Year 460)

Mosiah 18:5,30 The waters of Mormon (Illustration): Lake Atitlan, located in the Department of Solola. Proposed candidate for the Waters of Mormon. [Joseph L. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 240]

 

Mosiah 18:5,30 The waters of Mormon (Illustration): Lake Atitlan [Merrill Oaks, "Some Perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography," Slides 46-48]

 

Mosiah 18:5,30 The waters of Mormon (Illustration): Clouds catch first light as morning moves upon beautiful Lake Atitlan in Guatemala. Rimmed by three major volcanoes, with San Pedro visible at the left, the nine-mile-long by four-mile-wide lake itself is a caldera (a collapsed volcano) over 1,000 feet deep. From the internal clues of the Book of Mormon, this is a likely candidate for the area of the great city of Jerusalem. Wicked Jerusalem was destroyed at the crucifixion, being covered by water. Remnants of an ancient city have been discovered in the depths of this lake. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, pp. 154-155]

 

Mosiah 18:5,30 The waters of Mormon . . . how beautiful are they (Illustration): Sunset over Lake Atitlan, view from Panajachel. [F.A.R.M.S. Staff, Lands of the Book of Mormon, Slide #59]

 

Mosiah 18:5 A fountain of pure water . . . there being near the water a thicket of small trees (Illustration): Pure warm spring of water of thicket of trees, close to Lake Atitlan; possible location of where Alma hid from the king. [Jerry L. Ainsworth, The Lives and Travels of Mormon and Moroni, p. 93]

 

Mosiah 18:8 Behold, here are the waters of Mormon . . . what have you against being baptized (Illustration): Alma Baptizes in the Waters of Mormon. [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Gospel Art, #309]

Mosiah 18:29 Alma fees to a place called Mormon (Illustration) Proposed route between the Land of Nephi/Guatemala and the Land of Zarahemla/Chiapas with distances between each

 

Mosiah 18:30 The forest that was near the waters of Mormon (Illustration): The coast of Lake Atitlan seen from the Panajachel delta, suggested scene of the Forest of Mormon. (Courtesy Kirk Magleby) Panajachel delta on Lake Atitlan, suggested scene of the Forest of Mormon (Courtesy Richard Jones). [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, p. 177]

 

Mosiah 18:30 The waters of Mormon, the forest of Mormon, how beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to the knowledge of their Redeemer (Illustration): (a) The beauty of "the waters of Mormon" deeply impressed Alma1 and his companions (Mosiah 18:30). [According to John Sorenson] Lake Atitlan, west of Guatemala City, fits the scriptural text's characterization of the "fountain of pure water" (Mosiah 18:5) adjacent to Mormon. (b) This delta of the little Panajachel River at the northeast corner of Lake Atitlan could be where Alma1 hid from the armies of King Noah in a "thicket of small trees" (Mosiah 18:5). [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 198]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 18:30--19:1; 23:1-20 Noah's Army Approaches--Alma Flees to Helam (Year 462)

 

Mosiah 18:30 19:1: 23:1-20: Noah's army approaches -- Alma Flees to Helam. (Illustration) [John L. Sorenson]

Mosiah 19:15 And thus they should pay tribute to the king of the Lamanites (Illustration): The Matricula de Tributos, another Aztec list, illustrates the political symbolism involved in the ritualized payment of tribute. Every item ticked off signaled submission to superior power, just as must have been the case when the Zeniffites turned over their tribute to the Lamanite king. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 114]

 

Mosiah 19:15 And thus they should pay tribute to the king of the Lamanites from year to year (Illustration): Types and amounts of tribute are listed in this tabulation from the Codex Mendoza. One prince, for example, had to submit annually to the capital 12,800 cloaks, 1600 loin cloths, 1600 women's tunics, 32,000 bundles of paper, 8000 bowls, and four bins of maize and beans. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 115]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 19:2-29 Lamanites Attack & Subjugate People of Limhi--Noah Flees (Year 462)

Mosiah 19:20 [They] caused that [king Noah] should suffer, even unto death by fire (Illustration): Stela 10, Kaminaljuyu might be evidence of the death of King Noah and the ascension of his son Limhi [Clate Mask, "And They Called the Place Bountiful," p. 36]

 

Mosiah 19:20 [They] caused that [king Noah] should suffer, even unto death by fire (Illustration): Figure 1: This is known as Stela 10 from Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala. It may represent the assent of King Limhi to the throne (Mosiah 19:26). [Joseph Willard interview with Bruce Warren, "Monumental Evidence: Will Stela 10 Confirm Kaminaljuyu As the City of Nephi" in Book of Mormon Archaeological Digest, Vol. 1/1, Spring 1998, p. 5]

Mosiah 19:26 Limhi, being the son of the king [Noah], having the kingdom conferred upon him by the people (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 19:26 Limhi began to establish the kingdom (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 20:1-5 Daughters of Lamanites Taken by Priests of Noah (Year 464)

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 20:6-26 Lamanites Invade Nephi from Shemlon (Year 464)

 

Mosiah 20:10 They fought like lions (Illustration): The jaguar in the wild is still greatly feared wherever it is found in the lower forestlands of Mesoamerica. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 184]

Mosiah 21:3 They put heavy burdens upon their backs (Illustration): Carrying heavy burdens on their backs is common practice in Guatemala. The Lamanites put heavy burdens on the backs of Limhi's people. [Merrill Oaks, "Some Perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography," Slide #53]

 

Mosiah 21:3 They . . . began to put heavy burdens upon their backs (Illustration): Human bearers routinely carried from sixty to one hundred pounds of all sorts of goods on their bent backs. The load was held in place by a band across the forehead. They often traveled at a near trot and for up to ten hours a day. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 56]

Mosiah 21:2-14 People of Limhi battle Lamanites three times for freedom (Year 466-476) (Illustration) Proposed details in the Land of Nephi (Valley of Guatamala) (John L. Sorenson)

 

Geographical Theory Map:Mosiah 21:2-14 People of Limhi Battle Lamanites Three Times for Freedom (Year 466-476)

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 21 23; 1:1--8:4 Ammon and 15 Men Travel to Lehi-Nephi (Year 480)

 

Mosiah 21:23; 1:1--8: 4 Ammon and 15 men travel to Lehi-Lehi (Illustration)

 

Mosiah 21 23 11 8-4 Ammon and 16 men travel to Lehi-Nephi (Illustration) Search for Land of Nephi

 

Mosiah 21 25 43 Men hs been sent to find Zarahemla (Illustration) Limhi Expedition

 

Mosiah 22 1 13 Mosiah and Limhi Escape from Lehi-Nephi to Zarahemla (Illustration) proposed route from Nephi to Zarahemla.

 

Mosiah 21:25: 43 Men had been sent to find Zarahemla. (Illustration): Journeys indicating distances [John L.Sorenson].

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 21:25; 8:7 43 Men Had Been Sent to Find Zarahemla (Year 479-480)

Mosiah 22:7 We will pass through the secret pass (Illustration): The Cachiquel traitor shows the Spanish the secret underground passageway leading to the castle of the Cachiquel kings. [Adapted from Gerrardo Gordillo Barrios, Guatemala Historia Grafica, Segundo tomo, p. 28]

 

Mosiah 22:1-13 Ammon and Limhi escape from Lehi-Nephi to Zarahemla. (Illustration) [John L. Sorenson]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 22:1-13 Ammon and Limhi Escape from Lehi-Nephi to Zarahemla (Year 480)

Mosiah 22:16 They were lost in the wilderness (Illustration): Tree-covered mountains in the state of Huehuetenango near the border of Mexico and Guatemala. The Book of Mormon refers a number of times to parties who became lost in the wilderness. Dense jungle growth soon covers the tracks of travelers here, and in the mountainous terrain tracks are quickly washed away in an afternoon downpour. [Scot and Maurine Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 67]

 

Mosiah 22:15-16; 23:25-35 The Lamanites pursue Limhi, Discover Helam (Illustration) (John L. Sorenson)

 

Mosiah 22:15-16 23 25-35 The Lamanites pursue Limhi, Discover Helam (Illustration) Proposed Land of Amulon in relation to the proposed Valley of Almolonga

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 22:15-16; 23:25-35 The Lamanites Pursue Limhi, Discover Helam (Year 480)

Mosiah 23 Heading An account of Alma and the people of the Lord, who were driven into the wilderness (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 23:4 (Helam), a very beautiful land, a land of pure water (Illustration): Almolonga, Guatemala, Joseph Allen's proposed site of Helam. [Merrill Oaks, "Some Perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography, Slide #62]

 

Mosiah 23:4 (Helam), a very beautiful land, a land of pure water (Illustration): Scenes in the suggested land of Helam, "a very beautiful and pleasant land, a land of pure water," around Chalchitan, Guatemala. (Photos by Daniel Bates. Courtesy David A. Palmer and the Society for Early Historic Archaeology.) [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., p. 178]

Mosiah 23:6 The people were desirous that Alma should be their king. But he said . . . it is not expedient that ye should have a king (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

Mosiah 23:19 Helam (Illustration): The location of Malacatancito and the location of the "Nacimiento del Rio San Juan (the birth, source, or HEAD of the San Juan River. [Clate Mask, "10 Criteria or 206 Mini-Tests," pp. 12-14, 1996]

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 24:1--25:13 Amulon Oppresses Alma--Alma Escapes to Zarahemla (Year 481)

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 24:1--25:13 Amulon Oppresses Alma--Alma Escapes to Zarahemla 2 (Year 481) Nephi to Zarahemla

 

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 24:1--25:13 Amulon Oppresses Alma--Alma Escapes to Zarahemla (Year 481)

Geographical Theory Map: Mosiah 25:19-24 Alma Has Seven Churches--People Scatter Abroad (Year ???)

Mosiah 27:6 In all quarters of the land (Illustration): Medieval representation of the city of Jerusalem showing it divided into four quarters. [Diane E. Wirth and Steven L. Olsen, "Four Quarters," in Reexploring the Book of Mormon, F.A.R.M.S., p. 149]

Mosiah 27:10 [Alma] was going bout to destroy the church of God (Illustration): Similarities between the Conversion of Alma and Saul (Paul). [Alan C. Miner, Personal Notes]

     Similarities between the Conversion of Alma2 and Saul (Paul)

   

Mosiah 27:10 [Alma] was going about to destroy the church of God (Illustration): Differences between the Conversion of Alma and Saul (Paul). [Alan C. Miner, Personal Notes]

     Some Differences between the Conversion of Alma and Saul (Paul)

Mosiah 27:11 The angel of the Lord appeared unto them [Alma & the sons of Mosiah] (Illustration): Conversion of Alma the Younger. An angel appeared to Alma and the sons of Mosiah and told them to "seek to destroy the church no more." Artist: Gary Kapp. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 253]

 

Mosiah 27:11 The angel of the Lord appeared unto them [the sons of Mosiah] (Illustration): Sons of Mosiah [Gary Kapp, Verse Markers, Book of Mormon, Vol. 1, p. 2]

Mosiah 27:23 The limbs of Alma received their strength (Illustration): Alma the Younger. After his father and the priests had fasted for two days and two nights, "the limbs of alma received their strength." Artist: Robert T. Barrett. [Thomas R. Valletta ed., The Book of Mormon for Latter-day Saint Families, 1999, p. 255]

Mosiah 28:13 Two stones which were fastened into the two rims of a bow (Illustration): Various Concepts of the Urim and Thummim and the Breastplate. (1) Various concepts which have been advanced regarding the possible appearance of the Urim and Thummim, and of the Breastplate. (2) Various Mesoamerican sculptures appearing to involve spectacles. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 124]

Mosiah 29:42 Alma was appointed to be the first chief judge (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Mosiah 29:42 He [Alma] being also the high priest, his father having conferred the office upon him (Nephite Chief Priests) [Illustration]: Nephite Chief Priests. Adapted from [John W. Welch and Morgan A. Ashton, "Charting the Book of Mormon," Packet 1, F.A.R.M.S., 1997]

 

Mosiah 29:44 And thus commenced the reign of the judges throughout all the land of Zarahemla (Illustration): Chart: "The Nephite Judges." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #33]

 

Mosiah 29:44 And Alma was the first and chief judge (Illustration): Chart: "Alma as Chief Judge: Years 1-8 of the Reign of the Judges." [John W. & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon: Visual Aids for Personal Study and Teaching, F.A.R.M.S., Chart #34]