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Omni

 

Out of Bondage through Covenants

      Jarom -- Mosiah


 

 

 

 

     OMNI

 

 

Omni 1:3 I [Omni] conferred them upon my son Amaron (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Omni 1:8-9 I [Amaron] did deliver the [small] plates unto my brother Chemish (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

Omni 1:10 Behold, I, Abinadom, am the son of Chemish (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Omni 1:12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 

Omni 1:12-14 Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla (Nephite Record Keepers) [Illustration]: Nephite Record Keepers. Adapted from [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 155]

 Geographical Theory Map: Omni 1:12-14 Mosiah Flees from Nephi to Zarahemla (Year 398)

 

Omni 1:13 They came down into the land . . . of Zarahemla (Illustration): A view descending down into the Chiapas Depression. Santa Rosa, Chiapas, Mexico has been proposed as the land of Zarahemla. [Merrill Oaks, "Some Perspectives on Book of Mormon Geography," slide # ]

 

Omni 1:13 They came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla (Illustration): (a) [According to John Sorenson] the site of Santa Rosa, in the upper Central Depression, qualifies in important ways as the city of Zarahemla. Part of the archaeological site is seen in the foreground of this aerial view, with the Grijalva river adjacent. . . . (b) An area a few miles from Santa Rosa shows the relatively open, unforested landscape, in contrast to the jungle-type vegetation of many lowland areas. These two photos at the top of the page are over forty years old. For the past quarter century the area has been covered by the waters of a lake impounded by a major dam built thirty miles downstream. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 197]

Omni 1:13 The Land of Zarahemla (Illustration): Late afternoon light hits the shores of the upper reaches of the Usumacinta River in Guatemala near "Nine Hills" archaeological site. The river is a startling deep green. Surprisingly, the Hebrew root of Sidon is sid, meaning "lime." It may be more than coincidence that this river flows over limestone and is the color of a lime. [F. Richard Hauck, "The Trail to Zarahemla," in This People, Holiday 1994, p. 65. Photography by Scot F. Proctor]

 

Omni 1:13 The Land of Zarahemla (Illustration): Enormous salt dome forms this jungle-covered hillside in the lowland area at the site of Nueve Cerros (Nine Hills). A creek that flows out of the north side of this hill has been used by the Maya for centuries to obtain salt. This place has the only inland salt source in the region, and if this is the area of Zarahemla, it is interesting to note how often the Lord leads his people to an area of salt. [F. Richard Hauck, "The Trail to Zarahemla," in This People, Holiday 1994, p. 65. Photography by Scot F. Proctor]

 

Omni 1:13 The Land of Zarahemla (Illustration): Enormous salt dome forms this jungle-covered hillside in the lowland area at the area of Nueve Cerros (Nine Hills). Lush forest shelters abundant wildlife, including howler monkeys, jaguars, snakes, and colorful birds. . . . Zarahemla would turn away from the Lord and be destroyed by fire at the time of the crucifixion (which indicates that much of the city was built of wood) but be rebuilt again to last at least another 300 years. [Scot F. Proctor and Maurine J. Proctor, Light from the Dust, p. 152]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): King Jehu's Stocking-Cap: This is an artist's drawing of King Jehu of Israel, depicting the type of caps which were worn by the people in Jerusalem about the time that Lehi and his associates migrated to America. Jehu dates approximately 200 years earlier than Lehi. Drawing by Ralph Harding. [Milton Hunter and Thomas Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, pp. 318-319]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): An Ancient American's Stocking Cap: Compare the stocking-cap and beard of the man of ancient Middle America, above with the stocking-cap of King Jehu of ancient Israel, p. 318. This Ulmec piece, dating about the time of Christ, is now in the National Museum, Mexico City. It was uncovered by Matthew W. Stirling in 1939-1940. etc. [Milton Hunter and Thomas Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, pp. 318-319]

 

Omni 1:15 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem (Illustration): Cyrus Gordon, one of the great scholars on the Near East, sees Jewish features in this stela from the state of Veracruz. It dates perhaps a bit before Mormon's day. Gordon claims that the cord wrapped around the forearm of the major figure is arranged precisely like the ritual wrapping of the Judaic phylactery of medieval times. However most Mesoamericanist scholars, unacquainted with the Old World material, consider the scene simply to show preparation for a ritual Mesoamerican ball game. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 225]

 

Omni 1:15 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem (Illustration): Art historians apply principles derived from studies of art in other parts of the world to interpret pieces from Mesoamerica, place them in orderly sequences, and establish interconnections between styles. This famous ceramic disk, which shows a few Near Eastern features, comes from central Veracruz and dates between the seventh and tenth centuries. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 223]

 Omni 1:15 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem (Illustration): Phylactery Stela Tepatlaxco, Veracruz (National Museum Mexico City, A.D. 100-300) [T.J. O'Brien, Fair Gods and Feathered Serpents, p. 199]

 

Omni 1:16 They . . . were brought by the hand of the Lord across the great waters (Illustration): Model ships in a museum in Haifa, Israel, illustrate types of vessels that could have been available to make an early crossing of the ocean to America. On the left is a Phoenician vessel of about 700 B.C. The ship on the right was used by Jews in the eastern Mediterranean in the third century A.D. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 225]

 

Omni 1:16 Across the great waters (Illustration): Figure 1. Generalized map of the principal ocean currents: (a) Japan-North Pacific Current; (b) California-North Equatorial Current; (c) Equatorial Countercurrent; (d) Peru-South Equatorial Current; (e) Antarctic Drift; (f) Irminger Current; (g) Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Current; (h) Canaries-North Equatorial Current; (i) Benguela-South Equatorial Current. {Stephen C. Jett, "Before Columbus: The Question of Early Transoceanic Interinfluences," reprinted by F.A.R.M.S. from BYU Studies, 33/2 (1993), p. 255]

Omni 1:16 They journeyed . . . across the great waters (Illustration): Did Phoenicians Bring Mulec to the New World? (1) Phoenician-type ceramic head found in a mound at Tres Zapotes. (2) Stela from Campeche Mexico, now in the National Museum. Note the Star of David with waves on the ear spool, and the ship-like headdress. (3) A Ceramic head found in Guerrero state, Mexico. (4) Phoenician-type head carved in slate, found in southeast Veracruz. (5) Statue of Phoenician god Melkarth from Palestine. (6) The famous Stone of Paraiba found in Brazil. [Glenn A. Scott, Voices from the Dust, p. 121]

 

Omni 1:16 Across the great waters (Illustration): Voyage of the Ra. [Verneil W. Simmons, Peoples, Places and Prophecies, p. 98]

 

Omni 1:16 The Mulekites had crossed the great waters. (Illustration): Plausible locations in Mesoamerica for Book of Mormon Placaes [John L. Sorenson]

 

Omni 1:16 The Mulekites had come into the land where Mosiah discovered them. (Illustration): Plausible locations in Mesoamerica for Book of Mormon places. [John L Sorenson]

 

Omni 1:16 The mulekites had come into the Land where Mosiah discovered them. Proposed Mulekige Landing site and migrations

 

Geographical Theory Map: Omni 1:16 The Mulekites Had Crossed the Great Waters (Year ???)

 

Omni 1:16/Alma 22:30 [The land of Desolation] was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing (Illustration): Proposed Landing Site of the Mulekites: Location of Potonchan. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 144]

 

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Illustration showing what has been labeled the "Dancers" at the Zapotec ruins of Monte Alban in the State of Oaxaca (Mexico). According to Joseph Allen, because some of the figures appear to be represented in ballerina-type dancing positions, the group of monuments has been called the danzantes, or dancers. . . Allen personally favors the conclusion of Julia Marcos, a student of the Zapotec culture. She suggests that whoever the settlers were of Monte Alban Period I (500 B.C.-100 B.C.), their nudeness reflects some relationship to captivity. The custom of parading nude captive victims is both a sign of complete dominance as well as a sign of security for the oppressors." [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 89] [See Alma 22:31]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Picture of Monte Alban, a Zapotec ruin dating from 500 B.C. to A.D. 750. The site is located on a hill in the center of the Oaxaca Valley. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 87]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Four-horned incense burner from Monte Alban Period I. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 88]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Collector Howard Leigh of Mitla, Oaxaca (Mexico) holding a four-horned incense burner found in Oaxaca. It may relate to observance of the Law of Moses in Ancient Mexico. [David A. Palmer, In Search of Cumorah, p. 169]

 

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Altar 3 in La Venta Park: The heavily bearded individual could represent a Mulekite immigrant. ["Lands of the Book of Mormon," F.A.R.M.S., Slide #80]

 

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): "Uncle Sam" Figurine from La Venta Stela : This picture is an artist's representation of the "Uncle Sam" aristocratic figuring on the La Venta stela. The clothing and shoes are the type worn by the ancients of America and also of the Near East. [Milton R. Hunter and Thomas S. Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, p. 133]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): La Venta Monument and "Uncle Sam" Figurine: This fourteen-feet high monument was discovered by Matthew W. Stirling at La Venta, Tabasco (southern Gulf Coast of Mexico), in 1939-1940. The picture was taken from the National Geographic Magazine, September, 1940, p. 327. The following was printed under the picture: Worth Digging For Was The Face of the Largest Stela. The lower figure with flowing beard was nicknamed "Uncle Sam" by the staff. His aquiline nose and aristocratic features were different from all other faces depicted at the site. The monument was found in the center of a large stone enclosure at La Venta . . . The face of one of the standing figures has unfortunately been broken off, but that of the other shows a remarkably handsome individual with upturned toes. Over these two figures, apparently floating through the air, are a number of others in human form, which may represent deities. [Milton Hunter and Thomas Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, p. 134]

Omni 1:15-16 The people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem . . . into the land where Mosiah discovered them (Illustration): Bearded Man Of Ancient Vera Cruz, Mexico: This unusual work of art shows two important things: (1) the physical characteristics of the early settlers of Vera Cruz, Mexico; (2) the high artistic sense and skills of the ancients. Note the aquiline nose, the eye form and the beard. This portrays a white man and it was fashioned by a highly skilled artisan--the type described in our documentary sources--and not by an ordinary North American or South American Indian. [Milton Hunter and Thomas Ferguson, Ancient America and the Book of Mormon, p. 242]

 

Omni 1:17 Their language had become corrupted (Illustration): Distribution of Mesoamerican Words for Corn. [John L. Sorenson, Images of Ancient America, p. 25]

 

Omni 1:17 Their language had become corrupted (Illustration): The Mixe-Zoque/Maya Interaction Zone. Map showing distribution of major culture areas in Mesoamerica as related to Izapa and a highly idealized zone of Mixe-Zoque/Maya interaction; in Preclassic times the zone of interaction may have curved closer to the Usumacinta River and its tributaries (compare Map of the Greater Isthmus Area and Linguistic Map of Eastern Mesoamerica). [Gareth W. Lowe, Thomas Lee Jr., and Eduardo Martinez Espinoza, Izapa: An Introduction to the Ruins and Monuments, p. 306]

 

Omni 1:17 Their language had become corrupted (Illustration): Map of the Greater Isthmus Area. Relating Izapa to some other major southern Mesoamerica archaeological sites, indicated by triangles. Shaded zone indicates the Soconusco district or region, famous for commerce . . . [Gareth W. Lowe, Thomas Lee Jr., and Eduardo Martinez Espinoza, Izapa: An Introduction to the Ruins and Monuments, Frontispiece]

 

Omni 1:17 Their language had become corrupted (Illustration): Linguistic Map of Eastern Mesoamerica. Showing approximate distribution of the Mixe-Zoquean and Mayan language groups at the time of the Conquest. . . . [Gareth W. Lowe, Thomas Lee Jr., and Eduardo Martinez Espinoza, Izapa: An Introduction to the Ruins and Monuments, p. 9]

Omni 1:18 Zarahemla gave a genealogy (Illustration): Chart showing the royal genealogy of Zedekiah and the other sons of Josiah. [Adapted from Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 739]

 

Omni 1:18 Zarahemla gave a genealogy (Illustration): The Priestly Genealogical Lineage of Mulek Back to Levi. [Bruce S. Sutton, Lehi, Father of Polynesia: Polynesians Are Nephites, p. 45]

 

Omni 1:18 Zarahemla gave a genealogy (Illustration): The Line of High Priests After the Order of Kohath. [Bruce Sutton, Personal Communication]

Omni 1:20 A large stone brought unto him with engravings on it (Illustration): Monument No. 12 at La Venta Museum, Villahermosa, Tabasco. Joseph Allen correlates this stone somewhat with the idea of the large stone mentioned in Omni. [Joseph Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, p. 57]

 

Omni 1:23 I [Amaleki] have lived to see [Benjamin's] death (Illustration): Book of Mormon Structure. The span of years from Jacob to the last days of Amaleki amount to roughly 400 years; which means that in just a few pages the reader has covered nearly 40 percent of the time frame for the history of the people of Lehi. With this in mind, we should be wary of calling the Book of Mormon a "history of the people who lived on the American Continent before Columbus." [Gerald Lund - personal file]

 

Omni 1:23 And Benjamin, his [Mosiah's son] reigneth in his stead (Major Nephite Leaders) [Illustration]: The Major Leaders During Nephite History. [Church Educational System, Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121 and 122, 1989, p. 160]

 

Omni 1:23 Benjamin (Illustration): The land occupied by the tribe of Benjamin. [Tyndale House, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, p. 185]

 

Omni 1:25 I [Amaleki] shall deliver up these plates unto him [King Benjamin] (Illustration): Chart of Nephite Record Keepers [Book of Mormon Student Manual for Religion 121 and 122, p. 155]

 

Omni 1:26 Yea, come unto [Christ], and offer your whole soul as an offering unto him (Illustration--Stanley Livingstone): An artist reconstructs Henry Stanley's dramatic meeting with missionary David Livingstone. [The Golden Home and High School Encyclopedia, Vol. 17. New York: Golden Press, 1961, p. 2412]